Second Timothy 4.9-13

[This is part of a running series on translating Second Timothy. See the introductory post for more information — RB]

Phrasing/Translation: 2Ti 4.9-13

9 Σπούδασον
9 Make every effort
    to come
        πρός με ταχέως·
        to me quickly.

10 Δημᾶς γάρ με ἐγκατέλιπεν
10 For Demas deserted me,
    ἀγαπήσας τὸν νῦν αἰῶνα
    having loved the present age,

καὶ ἐπορεύθη
and journeyed
    εἰς Θεσσαλονίκην,
    into Thessalonica,

    εἰς Γαλατίαν,
    into Galatia,

and Titus
    εἰς Δαλματίαν·
    into Dalmatia.

11 Λουκᾶς ἐστιν μόνος
11 Luke alone is
    μετʼ ἐμοῦ.
    with me.

    Μᾶρκον ἀναλαβὼν
    Take along Mark
ἄγε μετὰ σεαυτοῦ,
and bring him with you,

ἔστιν γάρ μοι εὔχρηστος
for he is useful to me
    εἰς διακονίαν.
    in ministry.

12 Τύχικον δὲ ἀπέστειλα
12 But I have dispatched Tychicus
    εἰς Ἔφεσον.
    to Ephesus.

13 τὸν φαιλόνην
13 The cloak
    ὃν ἀπέλιπον
    which I left
        ἐν Τρῳάδι
        in Troas
        παρὰ Κάρπῳ
        with Carpus
    upon your coming
bring [it],
    καὶ τὰ βιβλία
    and the books,
    μάλιστα τὰς μεμβράνας.
    especially the parchments.


Verse 9

Σπούδασον] second person imperative, the focus has implicitly shifted back to Timothy.

ἐλθεῖν] infinitive

πρός με] prepositional phrase, completes the infinitive. The pronoun με implicitly resolves to Paul, the writer of the letter.

ταχέως] adverb, also modifies the infinitive.

Verse 10

Δημᾶς γάρ με ἐγκατέλιπεν] Again, με resolves to the writer. Here he is informing Timothy of the recent goings-on with Demas (on Demas, see also Col 4.14; Phm 24). Demas is the subject of the verb; it also serves as a topical frame (Runge). The connective γαρ indicates that this is offering some sort of explanation or reasoning for the previous clause; here Paul is explaining why he wants Timothy to make an effort to get to him in due time.

ἀγαπήσας τὸν νῦν αἰῶνα] participial clause, modifying verb of main clause, thus providing information as to why Demas left Paul.

καὶ ἐπορεύθη] The conjunction και connects with the previous clause, thus the subject (Demas) can be assumed. Paul is giving more information about Demas, he left Paul and went somewhere else.

εἰς Θεσσαλονίκην] prepositional phrase, modifying ἐπορεύθη, giving Demas’ destination.

Κρήσκης εἰς Γαλατίαν] The implied verb here is ἐπορεύθη; this is just giving information as to Crescens’ location; it is not linking Crescens with Demas.

Τίτος εἰς Δαλματίαν] Again, just giving information as to Titus’ location. Paul’s point is that those who were with him are (largely) no longer with him; they’re off doing other things.

Verse 11

Λουκᾶς ἐστιν μόνος μετʼ ἐμοῦ] “Luke” is another topic shift; Paul moves from talking about those who have left him to talking about those who have stayed. Luke is the only one who has stayed.

Μᾶρκον ἀναλαβὼν] fronted participial clause, here shifting the topic to Mark and backgrounding the information. This is information essential to process the whole clause. The shift now goes to instructions for Timothy; to carry these out Timothy needs to know Paul’s desire for Mark.

ἄγε] second person imperative verb.

μετὰ σεαυτοῦ] prepositional phrase. The whole clause could be, following Greek word order, “Taking along Mark, bring [him] with you”.

ἔστιν γάρ μοι εὔχρηστος] Here we have the γαρ clause offering explanation of Paul’s need for Mark to come along; Mark is useful.

εἰς διακονίαν] prepositional phrase, modifying the verb ἔστιν.

Verse 12

Τύχικον δὲ ἀπέστειλα] The connective δὲ is developmental; we’re moving on from Paul’s need for Mark and into what’s going on with Tychicus (see also Ac 20.4; Eph 6.21; Col 4.7 and Titus 3.12 for more on Tychicus). Note here that “Tychicus” is a topical frame, it is needed to process the balance of the clause — about Tychicus’ being sent.

εἰς Ἔφεσον] prepositional phrase. Tychicus is coming to Ephesus (where Timothy is currently located).

Verse 13

τὸν φαιλόνην] Another fronted object that serves as a topical frame. Paul is (again) changing the subject. Now he’s interested in a particular cloak.

ὃν ἀπέλιπον] beginnings of a relative clause. This specifies which cloak Paul is concerned with. This as well is part of the topical frame.

ἐν Τρῳάδι] prepositional phrase, modifying ἀπέλιπον.

παρὰ Κάρπῳ] prepositional phrase, modifying ἀπέλιπον.

ἐρχόμενος] participial clause. All of the previous items were fronted before the main verb (which follows this participle). First the information about the cloak was needed, then information about the particular cloak was needed, now Paul can inform Timothy to, upon his coming, bring the cloak.

φέρε] second person imperative, primary verb of the whole clause. With the cloak sufficiently described, Paul can instruct Timothy to bring it upon his coming.

καὶ τὰ βιβλία] The καὶ connects this with τὸν φαιλόνην above; implicit is the same verb. Timothy is to also bring the books along with the cloak.

μάλιστα τὰς μεμβράνας] adverbial clause. “especially the parchments”. This small phrase has produced no end of discussion in commentaries and other literature, particularly having to do with μάλιστα. The basic question has to do with whether or not this is appositional (“books” and “parchments”), or whether “parchments” are a class or subset of the “books”. In 1979, T.C. Skeat published an article (“Especially the Parchments: A Note on 2 Timothy IV.13”, Journal of Theological Studies, NS, Vol. 30, 1979, pp. 173-177) where, using examples from some papyri, he posited that this could mean something like “bring the books, that is, the parchments” where μάλιστα plays a clarifying role, sorting out a smaller group from a larger, more general group. Many commentaries (starting with Knight, I believe) take this route here (and elsewhere where the use of μάλιστα is more theologically sensitive). In 2002, however, Vern Poythress published a response to Skeat’s article (“The Meaning of μάλιστα in 2 Timothy and Related Verses”, Journal of Theological Studies, Vol. 35 pt. 2 October 2002, pp. 523-532) basically taking a fairly conservative (in the literal sense) approach that Skeat’s suggestion wasn’t necessary, that his examples were explainable using the standard lexical knowledge, and that adding another sense to a lexical entry wasn’t justified in this case. I think Skeat’s suggestion has some merit, but I also think it needs to be carefully applied, particularly in situations rife with theological implications (e.g. 1Ti 4.10’s “especially the believers”).

Ligon Duncan on Second Timothy 4.6-22

The Gospel Coalition’s recent national conference had the theme “Entrusted with the Gospel” and was focused on Second Timothy. Each plenary session focused on a different portion of the epistle.

Ligon Duncan’s session on 2Ti 4.6-22 was titled “Finishing Well”. Audio and video is available.

Bryan Chapell on Second Timothy 3.10-4.5

The Gospel Coalition’s recent national conference had the theme “Entrusted with the Gospel” and was focused on Second Timothy. Each plenary session focused on a different portion of the epistle.

Bryan Chapell’s session on 2Ti 3.10-4.5 was titled “Preach the Word!”. Audio and video is available.

K. Edward Copeland on Second Timothy 3.1-9

The Gospel Coalition’s recent national conference had the theme “Entrusted with the Gospel” and was focused on Second Timothy. Each plenary session focused on a different portion of the epistle.

K. Edward Copeland’s session on 2Ti 3.1-9 was titled “Shadowlands: Pitfalls and Parodies of Gospel-Centered Ministry”.

Mark Driscoll on Second Timothy 2.14-26

The Gospel Coalition’s recent national conference had the theme “Entrusted with the Gospel” and was focused on Second Timothy. Each plenary session focused on a different portion of the epistle.

Mark Driscoll’s session on 2Ti 2.14-26 was titled “Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth”. Audio and Video is available.

Phil Ryken on Second Timothy 1.13-2.13

The Gospel Coalition’s recent national conference had the theme “Entrusted with the Gospel” and was focused on Second Timothy. Each plenary session focused on a different portion of the epistle.

Phil Ryken’s session was on 2Ti 1.13-2.13 and was titled “The Pattern of Sound Words”. Audio and video are available.

John Piper on Second Timothy 1.1-12

The Gospel Coalition’s recent national conference had the theme “Entrusted with the Gospel” and was focused on Second Timothy. Each plenary session focused on a different portion of the epistle.

John Piper’s session was on 2Ti 1.1-12, titled “Feed the Flame of God’s Gift: Unashamed Courage in the Gospel”.

Second Timothy 4.1-8

[This is part of a running series on translating Second Timothy. See the introductory post for more information — RB] 

Phrasing/Translation: 2Ti 4.1-8

1 Διαμαρτύρομαι
1 I solemnly urge
    ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ
    in the presence of God and Christ Jesus,
        τοῦ μέλλοντος κρίνειν ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς,
        the one who will judge the living and the dead,
    καὶ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν αὐτοῦ
    and by His appearing
    καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ·
    and His Kingdom.

2 κήρυξον τὸν λόγον,
2 Preach the word.

Be ready
    when convenient
    or untimely.



and encourage,
    ἐν πάσῃ μακροθυμίᾳ καὶ διδαχῇ.
    with complete patience and instruction.

3 Ἔσται γὰρ καιρὸς
3 For there will be a time
    ὅτε τῆς ὑγιαινούσης διδασκαλίας οὐκ ἀνέξονται
    when they will not put up with sound doctrine
        κατὰ τὰς ἰδίας ἐπιθυμίας
        according to their own desires
    ἑαυτοῖς ἐπισωρεύσουσιν διδασκάλους
    they will accumulate for themselves a great many teachers
        κνηθόμενοι τὴν ἀκοὴν
        to tickle their ears
    4 καὶ
    4 and
        ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς ἀληθείας τὴν ἀκοὴν ἀποστρέψουσιν,
        indeed they will turn their ears away from the truth,
        ἐπὶ δὲ τοὺς μύθους ἐκτραπήσονται.
        and turn aside toward myths.

5 Σὺ δὲ νῆφε
5 But you be self-controlled
    ἐν πᾶσιν,
    in all things.

Endure hardship.

ἔργον ποίησον εὐαγγελιστοῦ,
Do the work of an evangelist.

τὴν διακονίαν σου πληροφόρησον.
Fulfill your ministry.

6 Ἐγὼ γὰρ ἤδη σπένδομαι,
6 For I am already poured out as a drink offering,

καὶ ὁ καιρὸς τῆς ἀναλύσεώς μου ἐφέστηκεν.
and the season of my departure is imminent.

7 τὸν καλὸν ἀγῶνα ἠγώνισμαι,
7 I have fought the good fight.

τὸν δρόμον τετέλεκα,
I have finished the race.

τὴν πίστιν τετήρηκα·
I have kept the faith.

8 λοιπὸν ἀπόκειταί μοι ὁ τῆς δικαιοσύνης στέφανος,
8 Henceforth the crown of righteousness is reserved for me,
    ὃν ἀποδώσει μοι ὁ κύριος
    which the Lord will award to me
        ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ,
        on that day,
    ὁ δίκαιος κριτής,
    the righteous judge,
        οὐ μόνον δὲ ἐμοὶ
        not only to me,
        ἀλλὰ καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς ἠγαπηκόσι τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν αὐτοῦ.
        but also to all those who have loved his appearing.


On this passage generally, Craig Smith, $amz(1905048297 Timothy’s Task, Paul’s Prospect) (Sheffield Phoenix, 2006) has excellent information on the “charge form” and background to these sorts of statements in associated literature. I’m not sure I agree with all of his conclusions (Is this a charge, or is it a testament?) but his discussion on the background of this passage from the perspective of epistolary form criticism is excellent. For background on the supposed “charge form” and other epistolary forms, see my paper Syntax Searching and Epistolary Form Criticism. While in the below I may refer to this as a “charge”, that does not mean I necessarily agree with Smith’s conclusions. “Charge” is just a handy way to refer to the structure.

Verse 1

Διαμαρτύρομαι] syntactically very similar to 1Ti 5.21. Some (Craig Smith) see this as a charge, utilizing a “charge verb” (διαμαρτυρομαι, παραγγελλω, μαρτυρομαι, ενορκιζω, εχορκιζω, ορκιζω, κελευω, παρακαλεω, εντελλοωμαι) with an appeal to authority (“before God and Jesus Christ … and by His appearing, and by His Kingdom”) to underscore the seriousness of the charge. See notes on 2Ti 2.14 above. Others see this as a testamentary statement, Paul passing the baton to his lieutenant.

ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ] prepositional phrase. This brings the ones whom the charge is being made before into the discussion as witnesses. Paul’s exhortation to Timothy (vv. 2-8) is consciously made with God and Jesus Christ as authoritative witnesses.

τοῦ μέλλοντος κρίνειν ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς] A participial clause that contains an infinitival clause. This modifies “Christ Jesus”, further specifying the authority by whom Paul gives the charge as one who judges the living and the dead. Serious stuff.

καὶ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ] This links back to “Christ Jesus” above; the charge is also given in the context of “his appearing” and “his kingdom”.

Verse 2

κήρυξον τὸν λόγον] Simple clause with imperative verb and object. This is a second person singular imperative; thus directed to Timothy, the recipient of the letter. This begins a section that is crammed with finite verbs, thus analyzed as a series of rather short clauses; each an exhortation from Paul to Timothy.

ἐπίστηθι] imperative verb, two adverbs (rounding out the clause) follow.

εὐκαίρως ἀκαίρως] Two adverbs that each modify ἐπίστηθι. Traditionally translated something like “in season and out of season”, but wanting to go more with a “in good times and in bad” vibe, I’ve mostly followed BDAG’s glosses, to be ready “when convenient or untimely”.

ἔλεγξον, ἐπιτίμησον, παρακάλεσον] Three imperative verbs, each second person singular (thus addressed to Timothy).

ἐν πάσῃ μακροθυμίᾳ καὶ διδαχῇ] prepositional phrase, modifying παρακάλεσον. This provides guidance on how Timothy is to encourage those he is ministering to: with complete patience and instruction. He is to patiently instruct them in the truth, Paul’s gospel and doctrine.

Verse 3

Ἔσται γὰρ καιρὸς] Here we have explanation for the previous charge. This clause runs from vv. 3-4; a bit of a jolt from the very short series of clauses that comprise v. 2. The γαρ typically marks explanatory content, offering support for the previous material.

ὅτε τῆς ὑγιαινούσης διδασκαλίας οὐκ ἀνέξονται] relative clause; this is providing more information as to the “time” mentioned previously. Note that this is also the “counterpoint” to a point-counterpoint structure that hinges on the αλλα in v. 3. (cf. Runge). This marks contrast; this present portion of the structure (“when they will not put up with sound doctrine”) will be contrasted, and correction or replacement will be offered in the next portion (the “point”) of the structure.

ἀλλὰ κατὰ τὰς ἰδίας ἐπιθυμίας] The prepositional phrase is preposed, giving vital information as to motive of the false teachers and their adherents. Whatever it is that they’re doing, they’re doing it because they are following their own strong desires.

ἑαυτοῖς ἐπισωρεύσουσιν διδασκάλους] The verb ἐπισωρεύσουσιν (“they will accumulate”) is what the preposed prepositional phrase modifies.

κνηθόμενοι τὴν ἀκοὴν] participial clause, modifying ἐπισωρεύσουσιν, giving further reason for the accumulation of teachers: “to tickle their ears”.

Verse 4

καὶ] Here καὶ connects the previous unit (with the base of “they themselves will accumulate …”) with the two-part μεν/δε counterpoint/point that follows.

ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς ἀληθείας τὴν ἀκοὴν ἀποστρέψουσιν] prepositional phrase, use of μὲν indicates that this prepositional phrase acts in tandem with the following prepositional phrase (itself marked as participating in the structure by use of δὲ). The prepositional phrase is again fronted in this dependent clause (respecting word order, “from the truth the ears the will turn away”) here marking “truth” as the axis on which the progress of the structure turns (away from truth and toward myths).

ἐπὶ δὲ τοὺς μύθους ἐκτραπήσονται] prepositional phrase, the use of δὲ constrains the dependent clause to function with the previous μὲν-instantiated clause. Again, the prepositional phrase is fronted in the dependent clause, noting provision of important information, with verb following. Here the information completes the motion begun in the previous clause (the counterpoint). On a spectrum with “truth” at one extreme and “myths” at the other, these people with their itching ears, who disdain sound doctrine, will turn from seeking truth to seeking myths.

Verse 5

Σὺ δὲ νῆφε] note again the superfluous Σὺ (cf. 2Ti 3.10, 14 and previous comments), bringing Timothy back into focus. After focusing (once again) on the problems of the false teachers, Paul gets back to exhorting Timothy. In this analysis I’ve broken verse five into several small clauses, each with a second person singular imperative verb, thus addressed to Timothy. Here the verb is νῆφε, “be self controlled”.

ἐν πᾶσιν] prepositional phrase, providing circumstance to the verb νῆφε.

κακοπάθησον] imperative, “endure hardship”.

ἔργον ποίησον εὐαγγελιστοῦ] Here the object (“work”) is fronted in the clause, drawing attention. It is the most important information of the clause. Also note the use of εὐαγγελιστής (“evangelist”), which is used in Eph 4.11-15, a list of roles and responsibilities in the nascent Christian community (cf. also Acts 21.8; FragPapias 3.5; 13.1; 16.1).

τὴν διακονίαν σου πληροφόρησον] The imperative verb is out of place at the end of the clause and thus is in a place of prominence. There may be an appositional relationship between this clause and the clause that precedes; Timothy is to fulfill his ministry, which is to do the work of an evangelist.

Verse 6

Ἐγὼ γὰρ ἤδη σπένδομαι] Here note the use of Ἐγὼ (instead of Σὺ) to again switch the topic, this time back to Paul. The conjunction γὰρ marks support or explanation; here it clues us in that Paul now is explaining the reasons for his charge to Timothy.

καὶ ὁ καιρὸς τῆς ἀναλύσεώς μου ἐφέστηκεν] Here the topic shifts from Paul himself to “the time of my (Paul’s) departure”.

Verse 7

τὸν καλὸν ἀγῶνα ἠγώνισμαι] The next three clauses are formulaic, each with similar Object-Verb syntax. The fronted object serves to shift topic with each clause. Again, this whole clause complex (starting in v. 6) is Paul giving reason for his exhortation of Timothy in verse 5 (and the whole charge, going back to vv. 1-2). This particular clause hearkens back to 1 Ti 6.12, where Paul adjures Timothy to “fight the good fight”; which itself hearkens back to Paul’s initial charge to Timothy in 1Ti 1.18, to “wage the good warfare”. Here Paul is looking back upon his evangelistic career (though his career is not finished yet) and offering himself as a model to Timothy, as encouragement to Timothy. Paul isn’t so much saying, “take my place” as he is saying “be like me” while he looks forward to his coming reward. He knows the end is near, but he also knows he’s not yet at the end (as v. 8 clearly shows).

τὸν δρόμον τετέλεκα] Here the fronted object indicates a new topic, that of “the race”. Paul’s example of running the race is reason for his exhortation to Timothy.

τὴν πίστιν τετήρηκα] Again a new topic, here “the faith”. Paul has lived up to what he has been entrusted with; he implores Timothy to do the same with the deposit he has been given.

Verse 8

λοιπὸν ἀπόκειταί μοι ὁ τῆς δικαιοσύνης στέφανος] Here λοιπὸν indicates a temporal shift (cf. Runge LDGNT); Paul is looking ahead from the present into the future, to his reward, which is being held for him.

ὃν ἀποδώσει μοι ὁ κύριος] relative clause, giving further information about the “crown of righteousness”.

ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ] prepositional phrase. The use of ἐκείνῃ, the “far demonstrative” (Runge) notes something that is somewhat removed (thus “far”) from the present context. This is speaking of a day in the future. Paul has not received his reward already. He is not finished. He is looking forward to the day of the reward.

ὁ δίκαιος κριτής] appositionally related to “the Lord”; here further describing the Lord (the one who will give Paul his crown) as “the righteous judge”.

οὐ μόνον δὲ ἐμοὶ] The conjunction δὲ marks this as a development connected to the previous clause; it is thus related to the “awarding” on “that day”. This is the counterpoint of a counterpoint/point structure. The “not only … but also” (οὐ μόνον .. ἀλλὰ καὶ) is frequently used in this manner. The reward is not only for Paul.

ἀλλὰ καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς ἠγαπηκόσι τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν αὐτοῦ] The point of the counterpoint/point structure. The reward is also for “all who have loved his [the Lord, the righteous judge] appearing”. This is a correction with underlying contrast between the single person Paul and (the correction) everyone who “has loved his appearing” will receive the reward. Commentators (Marshall, Knight, etc.) traditionally associate ἐπιφάνειαν with Christ’s return. See also 2Ti 4.1, above.

The Gospel Coalition 2009 National Conference

The Gospel Coalition (which I am not affiliated with) recently held their 2009 National Conference. The theme was Entrusted With The Gospel: Living the Vision of 2 Timothy. They’ve recently posted audio of all plenary sessions, which are supposed to “expound the book of Second Timothy”.

This is interesting to me because I’m working through my own analysis and translation of Second Timothy (here, if you’re interested).

Below is the overview from the conference web site:

The theme of this Conference gets to the heart of the book of Second Timothy. As Paul is mentoring a young Timothy, he is communicating the great privilege of proclaiming the gospel to the world. In an age bereft of courageous leadership, declining biblical literacy, and rising cultural accommodation, a prophetic voice from the center is needed, a voice that faithfully speaks the ancient text to our contemporary context. This Conference seeks a renewal of faithful preaching that is rooted in the Scriptures and centered on the gospel.

The best of gospel-faithful ministry is not only taught, it is also caught. This was the practice of the Apostle Paul — the great missionary of the early church — who not only had much to say regarding what constitutes gospel-faithful ministry, but also had much to show of what it looked like in an individual life and in the life of the church. We see these two foci coming together harmoniously in Paul’s letter to the church in Corinth:

Therefore I urge you to imitate me. For this reason I am sending to you Timothy, my son whom I love, who is faithful in the Lord. He will remind you of my way of life in Christ Jesus, which agrees with what I teach everywhere in every church (1 Corinthians 4:16-17; cf. 11:1; Philippians 3:17).

On 21-23 April 2009, The Gospel Coalition will hold its second National Conference on the theme, “Entrusted with the Gospel: Living the Vision of Second Timothy.” During these meetings we will seek to imitate Paul’s dual practice of show and tell.

The Plenary Sessions — led by John Piper, Phil Ryken, Mark Driscoll, K. Edward Copeland, Bryan Chapell, and Ligon Duncan — will expound the book of Second Timothy. It is through these expositions that we hope to model the sort of preaching through Scripture of which the church is in need, while teaching the glories of this gospel of the blessed God that has been entrusted to the care of the church. Tim Keller and Don Carson will each give addresses that seek to situate gospel-faithful ministry in the currents of the twenty-first century, and Ajith Fernando will discuss the global challenges and priorities of gospel-faithful mission for the next Christendom. There will also be several workshops devoted to the faithful appropriation of text (Scripture) to context (contemporary issues).

I’ve not listened to any of the audio, but you may find it helpful.

Second Timothy 3.14-17

[This is part of a running series on translating Second Timothy. See the introductory post for more information — RB] 

Phrasing/Translation: 2Ti 3.14-17

14 Σὺ δὲ μένε
14 But you remain
    ἐν οἷς ἔμαθες καὶ ἐπιστώθης,
    in what you learned and became convinced of,
    εἰδὼς παρὰ τίνων ἔμαθες,
    knowing from whom you learned,
    15 καὶ ὅτι
    15 that
        ἀπὸ βρέφους [τὰ] ἱερὰ γράμματα οἶδας,
        from infancy you knew the sacred writings,
            τὰ δυνάμενά σε σοφίσαι
            which are able to make you wise
                εἰς σωτηρίαν
                into salvation 
                    διὰ πίστεως 
                    through faith 
                        τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. 
                        which is in Christ Jesus.

16 πᾶσα γραφὴ θεόπνευστος καὶ ὠφέλιμος
16 All scripture is breathed out by God and useful
    πρὸς διδασκαλίαν,
    for teaching,
    πρὸς ἐλεγμόν,
    for rebuke,
    πρὸς ἐπανόρθωσιν,
    for improvement,
    πρὸς παιδείαν
    for training
        τὴν ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ,
        which is in righteousness,
    17 ἵνα ἄρτιος ᾖ ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ ἄνθρωπος,
    17 so that the man of God might be capable,
        πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἐξηρτισμένος.
        having been equipped for all good work.


The unit is 2Ti 3.10-17. NA27 insert a subparagraph break after 2Ti 3.13, which was a decent point to break the section for posting. See Second Timothy 3.10-13 for previous section.

Verse 14

Σὺ δὲ μένε] again, note the superfluous Σὺ (cf. v. 10 in previous post) which serves to bring Timothy back into focus. Note also the imperative verb.

ἐν οἷς ἔμαθες καὶ ἐπιστώθης] prepositional phrase, modifying the imperative verb. Specifies the content of what Timothy is to remain in. The two finite verbs in the prepositional phrase agree in everything but voice (the first active voice, the second passive). These provide the bounds of understanding the relative pronoun: “in what you learned and became convinced of”.

εἰδὼς παρὰ τίνων ἔμαθες] Note repetition of verb ἔμαθες; it adverbially modifies imperative verb; εἰδὼς is further modified by the prepositional phrase. Paul has covered the basics in Timothy’s learning, not only reminding him of what he’s learned but the examples he’s learned from (Paul, and Lois and Eunice, among others — the pronoun is plural here).

Verse 15

καὶ ὅτι] This clause is provides further modification to εἰδὼς (cf. Marshall ICC 788).

ἀπὸ βρέφους [τὰ] ἱερὰ γράμματα οἶδας] The prepositional phrase is fronted in the clause creating a temporal frame. Paul is stressing not only the content of Timothy’s knowledge of the truth, but the duration. He’s known this stuff since he was knee-high to a grasshopper.

τὰ δυνάμενά σε σοφίσαι] Participial clause, providing purpose of the sacred writings. Note again the articular, substantive participle + infinitive structure.

εἰς σωτηρίαν] prepositional phrase, modifying the previous clause, showing the end of “being made wise”.

διὰ πίστεως] prepositional phrase. This could be modifying the previous prepositional object or, as the previous prepositional phrase, modifying the verbal idea of the previous clause. Most see it as the former, though annotate it as the latter. Paul uses this prepositional phrase 12 times (Ro 3.22, 30, 31; 2Co 5.7; Ga 2.16; 3.14, 26; Eph 2.8; 3.12, 17; Co 2.12; 2Ti 3.15) and it evokes the image of “salvation through faith” in Eph 2.8. It seems reasonable to see this prepositional phrase modifying the previous prepositional object.

τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ] Here the article functions like a pronoun; the structure clarifies the source of the faith by use of the article with prepositional phrase.

Verse 16

πᾶσα γραφὴ θεόπνευστος καὶ ὠφέλιμος] The clause has no explicit verb, the verb “to be” (εστιν) is implied. The conjunction καὶ joins the two adjectives, θεόπνευστος and ὠφέλιμος, which agree in case, number and gender; θεόπνευστος καὶ ὠφέλιμος functioning as a predicate adjective structure. This attributes these qualities to the subject of the clause, “all Scripture/writings”. A series of four prepositional phrases follows; each providing some further information on how scripture can be helpful (ὠφέλιμος).

πρὸς διδασκαλίαν] prepositional phrase functioning adjectivally, modifying ὠφέλιμος. Scripture is helpful because it informs teaching.

πρὸς ἐλεγμόν] prepositional phrase functioning adjectivally, modifying ὠφέλιμος. Scripture is helpful because it rightly sheds light on those things worthy of rebuke.

πρὸς ἐπανόρθωσιν] prepositional phrase functioning adjectivally, modifying ὠφέλιμος. Scripture is helpful because it provides the basis of correction or improvement.

πρὸς παιδείαν] prepositional phrase functioning adjectivally, modifying ὠφέλιμος. Scripture is helpful for training.

τὴν ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ] Here the article functions like a relative pronoun, it is further modified by a prepositional phrase. This qualifies the training; it is not just any training, it is training which is in righteousness.

Verse 17

ἵνα ἄρτιος ᾖ ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ ἄνθρωπος] subordinate clause. From the perspective of traditional sentence diagramming, this is modifying the verb implied in v. 16 (εστιν). What is traditionally translated “the man of God” here is generic; ἄνθρωπος need not take an exclusively male referent.

πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἐξηρτισμένος] participial clause with prepositional phrase modifying the participle. The prepositional phrase is fronted, marking it as the most important material in the clause. The whole structure modifies the primary verb in the subordinate clause ().