Adebayo, “The Politics of the Term γραφή in the Pastoral Epistles”

Oluwarotimi Paul Adebayo has produced an article addressing the referent of γραφή in its two occurrences in the Letters to Timothy:

Adebayo, Oluwarotimi Paul. “The Politics of the Term γραφή in the Pastoral Epistles.” Scriptura 119.2 (2020): 1–11.

The article may be found online here.

Abstract: “The understanding of the term Scripture in early Christianity is best described as an evolving concept that can be categorised into various stages. This can best be seen in the most popular Greek term the NT uses in designating Scripture, γραφή and its cognates. Γραφή was used 50 times in the NT to represent Scripture, and in each of these instances, it refers to more than just a mere writing which is what the term originally meant in Greek prior to the NT’s consistent use of it as a technical term for sacred writing.
“This study attempts to reflect briefly on (part of) the evolution γραφή underwent on the pages of the NT especially within the Pastoral Epistles (PE) – a product of the early second century CE. This study bears in mind that the recognition of books as Scripture is not a series of clearly defined steps, but rather a long and complicated process involving creativity and powerplay. This study therefore serves to enhance a more accurate understanding of the transition the concept of Scripture in the PE, most especially pertaining to the use of the term γραφή.
“The question regarding the scope of the term γραφή in the NT and especially in the PE is open to debate – especially the use of the two different words, ἱερὰ γράμματα and γραφή for Scripture in 2 Tim. 3:15–16. So is the reference to Jesus’ words as Scripture in 1 Tim. 5:18. These have raised questions of a possible shift in the PE’s understanding of γραφή. “Findings from this research include the extensive use of γραφή in the PE to accommodate more than just the Jewish Scripture, as it has evolved to include emerging earlier writings of the NT; the author of the PE was creative in adopting and adapting to a new understanding of sacred writings which serves the context of his time.
“This unveils the influence a community exerts on recognition of authoritative Scripture while teasing out the politics intertwined in the recognition of Scripture and the identity of a people, as this later became the path to canonicity of Scripture.”

The Pastorals at ETS and SBL 2020

Due to the blog being down for several months, we were unable to post in anticipation of Pastorals-related sessions at ETS and SBL 2020. In retrospect, however, we provide that information here for the record.

ETS Annual Meeting 2020 (program)

The Pastoral Epistles study group sponsored three (virtual) presentations and fielded responses in a virtual session moderated by Greg Couser:

Stanley E. Porter, “Arguments For and Against Pauline Authorship of the Pastoral Epistles”

Mark Baker, A ‘Perfect’ Elder? Blamelessness in the Qualifications for Elders and Deacons in the Pastoral Epistles”

Ben Merkle, “The Authority of Deacons in Pauline Churches”

In addition, note:

Charlie Ray III, “A Lawful Use of the Law: The Use of the Law in 1 Timothy and Its Implications for the Church”

SBL Annual Meeting 2020 (abstracts available here)

Andrew R. Guffey, “Paul, the Pastorals, and Encratite Origins”

Gary G. Hoag, “Slaves and Masters, Diversity and Unity: Locating the Benefactor of 1 Timothy 6:1–2a”

Lyn Kidson, “Funding Widows in 1 Timothy 5: The Economy of Asia Minor and the Limits of Benefaction”

Mona Tokarek LaFosse, “Women and ‘the Faith’ in 1 Timothy 5: A Battle for Faith and Faithfulness”

Kelsi Morrison-Atkins. “Performing Piety: ‘Dress Codes’ and the Construction of Gender in 1 Timothy”

Angela Standhartinger, “The Pastoral Epistles among Ancient Letter Collections”

Note that there was a book review session focusing on Christopher Hutson’s volume on the Pastorals in the Paideia series; Daniel Darko presided over an invited panel consisting of Lyn Kidson, Michael Bird, and Thomas Hoklotubbe. Lyn Kidson has posted her review and Hoklotubbe’s review on her blog here. Mike Bird’s review can be found on his blog here.

The Pastorals in NTA 64.1

Following are items pertinent to Pastorals studies in New Testament Abstracts 64.1 (2020). We’ve noted a number of them previously, and have provided links to posts with abstracts where possible. Note that NTA has chosen not to abstract the responses to the articles in JSPL 9.1–2 noted below.

(231) Jens Herzer. “Narration, Genre, and Pseudonymity: Reconsidering the Individuality and the Literary Relationship of the Pastoral Epistles.” Journal for the Study of Paul and His Letters 9.1–2 (2019): 30–51. [link]

(232) Rob van Houwelingen. “The Meaning of ἐπιφάνεια in the Pastoral Epistles.” Journal for the Study of Paul and His Letters 9.1–2 (2019): 89–108. [link]

(233) Jermo van Nes. “The Pastoral Epistles: Common Themes, Individual Compositions? An Introduction to the Quest for the Origin(s) of the Letters to Timothy and Titus.” Journal for the Study of Paul and His Letters 9:1–2 (2019): 6–29. [link]

(234) George Kudilil. “Paul’s ‘Pressure of Anxiety for All the Churches’ (2 Cor 11:28) and His Exhortation to Timothy in 2 Tim 4:2.” Bible Bhashyam 45.3 (2019): 81–99.

(235) Greg A. Couser. “The Believer’s Judgment in 2 Timothy, Part 2.” Bibliotheca Sacra 176.704 (2019): 444–58. [link]

(236) Janusz Wilk. “Personalia w drugim liście do Tymoteusza 4,9–15 [References to Persons in 2 Timothy 4:9–15].” Collectanea Theologica 87.1 (2017): 49–74. [Polish; English-language abstract at end]

(237) D. I. Manomi. “Towards an African Biblical Virtue Ethics? Reflections on the Letter to Titus through a Progressive-Negotiated-Ethics.” Acta Theologica 39.2 (2019): 114–29.

(238) Peter-Ben Smit. “Supermen and Sissies: Masculinities in Titus and 1 Timothy.” Journal for the Study of Paul and His Letters 9:1–2 (2019): 62–79. [link]

(239) Jermo van Nes. “Who are ‘Our People’ (οἱ ἡμέτεροι) in Titus 3,14?” Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 95.4 (2019): 661–65. [link]

(p. 127) Deborah Krause, “1 Timothy,” “2 Timothy,” and “Titus.” Pages 311–22 in The Preacher’s Bible Handbook. Edited by O. Wesley Allen. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2019.

(p. 130) Suzanne W. Henderson, New Testament Conversations: A Literary, Historical, and Pluralistic Introduction. Nashville: Abingdon, 2019. [Pastorals treated on pp. 339–44]

(p. 132) Jens Herzer. “Goethes Quark und Holtzmanns Drillinge: Die Pastoralbriefe in Geschichte und Gegenwart.” Pages 125–135 in Update-Exegese 2.2: Grundfragen gegenwärtiger Bibelwissenschaft. Edited by Wolfgang Kraus and Martin Rösel. Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2019.

(p. 133) Lucy Peppiatt. Rediscovering Scripture’s Vision for Women: Fresh Perspectives on Disputed Texts. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2019. [note esp. chap. 8, “A Final Barrier: 1 Timothy 2:8–15, pp. 140–157]

(p. 135) N. T. Wright and Michael F. Bird. The New Testament in Its World: An Introduction to the History, Literature, and Theology of the First Christians. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2019. [Chapter 22: “The Pastoral Epistles,” pp. 528–50]

(p. 146) Robert J. Banks. Paul’s Idea of Community: The Early House Churches in Their Cultural Setting. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2020. [note “Appendix 1: The Drift of the Pastorals,” pp. 167–72).

(p. 146) Reimund Bieringer, ed. 2 Timothy and Titus Reconsidered / Der 2. Timotheus- und der Titusbrief in neuem Licht. Colloquium Oecumenicum Paulinum 20. Leuven: Peeters, 2018.

(p. 146) Bryan Blazosky. The Law’s Universal Condemning and Enslaving Power. BBR Supplement Series 24. University Park, PA: Eisenbrauns, 2019. [note chap 6, “1 Corinthians and the Disputed Pauline Epistles,” esp. pp. 180–85]

(p. 147) David J. Downs and Benjamin J. Lappenga. The Faithfulness of the Risen Christ: Pistis and the Exalted Lord in the Pauline Letters. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2019. [Introduction focuses on 2 Tim 2:8–13]

(p. 151) Lee Gatiss and Bradley G. Green. 1–2 Thessalonians, 1–2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon. Reformation Commentary on Scripture 12. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2019. [1 Timothy, pp. 110–211; 2 Timothy, 212–264; Titus, 265–306] [review]

(p. 153) Christopher R. Hutson. First and Second Timothy and Titus. Paideia. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2019. [review]

(p. 156) Marcos Aceituno Donoso. “Déu, el nostre Soter, a primera Tiemoteu. Teologia sobre la sobirania de Déu.” Pages 235–70 in Salvació i salvacions en els escrits bíblivcs i postbiblics. Scripta Biblica 17. Tarragona: Associació Biblica de Catalunya—Publicacions de l’Abadia de Montserrat, 2018. [Catalan; English-language summary]

(p. 158) Christiane Zimmermann. “Gott, unser Retter—Christus, unsere Hoffnung: Soteriologische Aspekte des 1. Timotheusbriefs.“ Pages 405­–426 in Sōtēria: Salvation in Early Christianity and Antiquity. Festschrift in Honour of Cilliers Breytenbach on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday. Edited by David S. du Toit, Christine Gerber, and Christiane Zimmermann. Leiden: Brill, 2019.

(p. 160) Andreas J. Köstenberger. “Faithful Stewardship in God’s Household: Discipleship in the Letters to Timothy and Titus.” Pages 193–212 in Following Jesus Christ: The New Testament Message of Discipleship for Today. Edited by John K. Goodrich. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2019.

Bibliography on Wealth and Poverty in the Pastorals

The theme for the 2021 Annual Meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society is “Wealth and Poverty.” I have compiled a selected bibliography on wealth and poverty vis-a-vis the Letters to Timothy and Titus which may be accessed here.

Bulundwe and Butticaz, “La critique paulinienne des ‘œuvres’ au regard de 4QMMT et des Pastorales”

An addition to the literature on the Pastorals may well be of interest to researchers interested in the intersection of the New Perspective on Paul and the Letters to Timothy and Titus:

Luc Bulundwe and Simon Butticaz. “La critique paulinienne des ‘œuvres’ au regard de 4QMMT et des Pastorales.” Semitica 62 (2020): 385–414.

Here’s a brief abstract: “This study reconsiders the meaning of ‘works of law’ in Paul from three perspectives: first, via a comparison with equivalents of the formula in the Dead Sea Scrolls; second, with an analysis of the phrase within Pauline contexts of communication (esp. Galatians); and finally with an exploration of its reception by the earliest readers of Paul in the Pastoral Epistles.”

Harmai, “‘That . . . the Father of glory, may give you a spirit of wisdom’: Δωη in Ephesians 1.17 and 2 Timothy 2.25.”

A brief technical article:

Harmai, Gábor. “‘That . . . the Father of glory, may give you a spirit of wisdom’: Δωη in Ephesians 1.17 and 2 Timothy 2.25.” Bible Translator 71.2 (2020): 231–35.

Abstract: The spelling of δώῃ in NA28 in Eph 1.17 and 2 Tim 2.25 is wrong. The correct form is δῴη, as in Westcott and Hort (WH), and a number of other old editions. An additional difficulty is that the NA apparatus does not illuminate the problem for the reader as the WH editions do. The problem is not serious in the translation of 2 Tim 2.25, where the real problem is the translation of μήποτε. In any case, if the verb is an optative, expressing a wish, we can understand better the irony of the author. Translations of Eph 1.17 that read δωη as subjunctive (expressing possibility) rather than optative are erroneous: The verb is in fact optative, as earlier translations correctly reflect.

Wieland, “Re-Ordering the Household: Misalignment and Realignment to God’s οἰκονομία in 1 Timothy”

Students of 1 Timothy will be interested in a newly available essay on “sin and its remedy” in 1 Timothy written by a well-known student of the Pastorals:

George M. Wieland, “Re-Ordering the Household: Misalignment and Realignment to God’s οἰκονομία in 1 Timothy.” Pages 147–60 in Sin and Its Remedy in Paul. Contours of Pauline Theology. Edited by Nijay K. Gupta and John K. Goodrich. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2020.

Wieland has made this biblical theological essay available on his Academia page (click here), where he gives this brief description: “An investigation of references to sin in 1 Timothy suggests that in this letter sin is whatever opposes or steps out of alignment with God’s oikonomia, as expressed both in the Law and in the gospel. The remedy is a realignment to God’s saving rule over creation, the world, and the church, and in that enterprise faithful, health-giving teaching is crucial.”

Velardo, “μιαίνω en Tito 1,15.”

Students doing detailed work in Titus 1 might be interested in this brief, well-researched article in a less well-known journal.

Velardo, Leandro J. “μιαίνω en Tito 1,15.” Argos 42 (2018): e0010. (Spanish) [link]

Reviews

It’s been some time since we’ve noted reviews, so there are quite a few to highlight. Over at RBL, Robert Yarbrough’s Pillar commentary on the Pastorals is still available for review by SBL members.

In Expository Times 131.3 (2019): 128-29, Paul Foster provides a positive review of Gerald Bray’s ITC volume, The Pastoral Epistles.

Jermo van Nes’s Pauline Language and the Pastoral Epistles: A Study of Linguistic Variation in the Corpus Paulinum (Linguistic Biblical Studies 16; Leiden: Brill, 2018) has been recently reviewed or summarized in: (1) Journal of Theological Studies 70.2 (2019): 817-19, by Christopher Hutson; (2) Svensk exegetisk årsbok 84 (2019): 257-60, by Tobias Hägerland (the review is in English); (3) Theologische Literaturzeitung 144:7-8 (2019): 768-69 by Bernhard Mutschler; (4) Journal for the Study of the New Testament 41.5 (2019): 84, by Dirk Jongkind.

Dorothee Dettinger’s Neues Leben in der alten Welt: Der Beitrag frühchristlicher Schriften des späten ersten Jahrhunderts zum Diskursüber familiäre Strukturen in der griechisch-römischen Welt (Arbeiten zur Bibel und ihrer Geschichte 59. Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2017), which has a significant Pastorals component, was reviewed by Martin Stowasser at Biblische Bücherschau (5/2019).

Christopher Hoklotubbe’s Civilized Piety: The Rhetoric of Pietas in the Pastoral Epistles and the Roman Empire (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2017) was reviewed by Raymond Collins in Interpretation 73.3 (2019): 313-14.

Cynthia Long Westfall’s Paul and Gender: Reclaiming the Apostle’s Vision for Men and Women in Christ (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2016), which engages the Pastorals at some length, is reviewed by Guy Prentiss Waters in Reformed Theological Review 78.3 (2019): 233-35.

Christoph Stenschke reviews Friedemann Krumbiegel, Erziehung in den Pastoralbriefen: Ein Konzept zur Konsolidierung der Gemeinden (Arbeiten zur Bibel und ihrer Geschichte 44; Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2013), appears in Filologia Neotestamentaria 52.32 (2019): 177-79. The review is in English, which is a boon for English-speaking Pastorals students; other reviews are in German: one by Lorenz Oberlinner in Biblische Zeitschrift 59.2 (2015): 300-4; and one by Karl-Heinrich Ostmeyer in Theologische Literaturzeitung 139.7-8 (2014): 891-93.

Robert Yarbrough’s commentary, The Letters to Timothy and Titus (Pillar New Testament Commentary; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2018), was reviewed by Benjamin Laird in JETS 62.4 (2019): 844-47; by James P. Sweeney in BBR 30.1 (2020): 158-161; and by Philip J. Long at Reading Acts (2018)

1 Timothy in P133

I hadn’t realized it until I stumbled across this online, but a few years back, one of the Oxyrhynchus papyri was published as containing text from 1 Tim 3:13-4:8, and as Peter Gurry noted, P.Oxy. 5259 became P133 as well. Here’s the editio princeps:

Shao, J. “5259. I Timothy 3:13–4:8.” Pages 3–8 in The Oxyrhynchus Papyri. Volume LXXXI. Edited and translated by J. H. Brusuelas and C. Meccariello. Graeco-Roman Memoirs 102. London: The Egypt Exploration Society, 2016.

You can read Shao’s work here (originally posted here). Gurry notes that with its 3rd-century dating, P133 has become the “earliest copy of 1 Timothy.”

You can view the actual papyrus here.