Category: Article Links (Page 2 of 6)

McKnight, “From Timely Exegesis to Contemporary Ecclesiology”

I list here an article which falls under the category of “hidden contributions to Pastorals scholarship”:

Scot McKnight, “From Timely Exegesis to Contemporary Ecclesiology: Relevant Hermeneutics and Provocative Embodiment of Faith in a Corona-Defined World – Generosity During a Pandemic.” HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 77.4 (2021): a6426.

The article engages the Pastorals in a discussion of generosity and humanitarian concern for the poor (pp. 2-3). McKnight is slated to produce a commentary on the Pastorals in the New Cambridge Bible Commentary.

Bibliography of 2020 (and Early 2021) Publications on the Pastorals

We have compiled our annual bibliography of recent publications on the Letters to Timothy and Titus, covering contributions from all of 2020 and early 2021. Over 100 items long, and international in scope, the list contains monographs, journal articles, and commentaries, as well as lists of conference presentations and dissertations on the letters. It is available for viewing and downloading here.

Wedgeworth, “Good and Proper: Paul’s Use of Nature, Custom, and Decorum in Pastoral Theology”

An interesting article which could be considered a “hidden contribution to Pastorals scholarship“:

Wedgeworth, Steven. “Good and Proper: Paul’s Use of Nature, Custom, and Decorum in Pastoral Theology.” Eikon: A Journal for Biblical Anthropology 2.2 (2020): 88–97.

Eikon is the journal of the Council for Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, formally known as the Journal of Biblical Manhood and Womanhood. Wedgeworth’s article uses 1 Tim 2:8-15 as its primary text, thus contributing to the ever-increasing literature on that passage.

The essay does not have an abstract, but an excerpt from the beginning will serve to summarize: “This essay will investigate to what extent the Apostle Paul uses a sort of natural-law reasoning in his argument against women teaching or holding an office of authority in the church. The primary textual subject will be 1 Timothy 2:8–15, but parallel New Testament passages will be considered insofar as they provide additional support for understanding the logic of Paul’s argument. I will argue that Paul is making a kind of natural law argument, by way of custom and decorum. This is not a simple appeal to human intuition, neither is it a generalized observation of empirical data taken from nature. It is, however, an argument based on the concepts of basic honor to authority figures, an element of the natural law, and the social power of decorum, of what is proper or fitting for social relationships between men and women. These are concepts grounded in a particular philosophy of nature and the morally formative role of custom. While appropriately using language and categories from the creation order, Paul is indeed employing a particular kind of natural-law application of this biblical account in order to prescribe customary social relations between men and women in the church.”

The full issue of Eikon which includes Wedgeworth’s article is here, and an online version of the full article is here.

Adebayo, “The Politics of the Term γραφή in the Pastoral Epistles”

Oluwarotimi Paul Adebayo has produced an article addressing the referent of γραφή in its two occurrences in the Letters to Timothy:

Adebayo, Oluwarotimi Paul. “The Politics of the Term γραφή in the Pastoral Epistles.” Scriptura 119.2 (2020): 1–11.

The article may be found online here.

Abstract: “The understanding of the term Scripture in early Christianity is best described as an evolving concept that can be categorised into various stages. This can best be seen in the most popular Greek term the NT uses in designating Scripture, γραφή and its cognates. Γραφή was used 50 times in the NT to represent Scripture, and in each of these instances, it refers to more than just a mere writing which is what the term originally meant in Greek prior to the NT’s consistent use of it as a technical term for sacred writing.
“This study attempts to reflect briefly on (part of) the evolution γραφή underwent on the pages of the NT especially within the Pastoral Epistles (PE) – a product of the early second century CE. This study bears in mind that the recognition of books as Scripture is not a series of clearly defined steps, but rather a long and complicated process involving creativity and powerplay. This study therefore serves to enhance a more accurate understanding of the transition the concept of Scripture in the PE, most especially pertaining to the use of the term γραφή.
“The question regarding the scope of the term γραφή in the NT and especially in the PE is open to debate – especially the use of the two different words, ἱερὰ γράμματα and γραφή for Scripture in 2 Tim. 3:15–16. So is the reference to Jesus’ words as Scripture in 1 Tim. 5:18. These have raised questions of a possible shift in the PE’s understanding of γραφή. “Findings from this research include the extensive use of γραφή in the PE to accommodate more than just the Jewish Scripture, as it has evolved to include emerging earlier writings of the NT; the author of the PE was creative in adopting and adapting to a new understanding of sacred writings which serves the context of his time.
“This unveils the influence a community exerts on recognition of authoritative Scripture while teasing out the politics intertwined in the recognition of Scripture and the identity of a people, as this later became the path to canonicity of Scripture.”

Cook, “μαλακοί and ἀρσενοκοῖται: In Defence of Tertullian’s Translation”

Recently, John Granger Cook published an article on the oft-debated terms μαλακοί and ἀρσενοκοῖται found in 1 Cor 6:9. Because the latter term, ἀρσενοκοῖται, is also found in 1 Tim 1:10, Cook’s work is of significance for students of the Pastorals.

John Granger Cook, “μαλακοί and ἀρσενοκοῖται: In Defence of Tertullian’s Translation.” New Testament Studies 65.3 (2019): 332–52

Here is the abstract: “The debate over the translation of μαλακοί and ἀρσενοκοῖται in 1 Cor 6.9 can and should be settled by a non-polemical and complete survey of the material now that comprehensive databases of ancient texts are available. The translation of ἀρσενοκοῖται by Tertullian, several Vetus Latina MSS and the Vulgate has the best evidential foundation. To establish the meaning of this term one has to turn to etymology and usage, a semantic domain of terms for sexual intercourse, and patristic and classical texts. Once the semantics of ἀρσενοκοίτης is better grounded, the ancient Latin translation of μαλακοί becomes the most probable.”

Cook’s article is the latest of numerous treatments which address the meaning of ἀρσενοκοῖται. Earlier bibliography includes the following:

John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 341–53; Robin Scroggs, The New Testament and Homosexuality (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983); David F. Wright, “Homosexuals or Prostitutes? The Meaning of ἀρσενοκοίται (1 Cor. 6:9, 1 Tim. 1:10),” Vigiliae Christianae 38.2 (1984): 125–53; William L. Petersen, “Can ἀρσενοκοίται Be Translated by ‘Homosexuals’? (I Cor. 6.9; I Tim. 1.10),” Vigiliae Christianae 40 (1986): 187–91; David F. Wright, “Translating ἀρσενοκοίται (1 Cor. 6:9; 1 Tim. 1:10),” Vigiliae Christianae 41 (1987): 396–98; Henry Mendell, “ΑΡΣΕΝΟΚΟΙΤΑΙ” (unpublished paper, California State University, Los Angeles), 1990?; James B. De Young, “The Source and NT Meaning of ἀρσενοκοίται, with Implications for Christian Ethics and Ministry,” The Master’s Seminary Journal 3 (1992): 191–215; Dale B. Martin, “Arsenokoitês and Malakos: Meanings and Consequences,” in Biblical Ethics and Homosexuality: Listening to Scripture, ed. R. L. Brawley (Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1996), 117–36; Raymond F. Collins, Sexual Ethics and the New Testament: Behavior and Belief (New York: Crossroad, 2000), 89–90; James B. De Young, Homosexuality: Contemporary Claims Examined in Light of the Bible and Other Ancient Literature and Law (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2000), 175–203; Robert A. J. Gagnon, The Bible and Homosexual Practice: Texts and Hermeneutics (Nashville: Abingdon, 2001), 312–36; John H. Elliott, “No Kingdom of God for Softies? Or, What Was Paul Really Saying? 1 Corinthians 6:9–10 in Context,” Biblical Theology Bulletin 34.1 (2004): 17–40; G. R. Jepsen, “Dale Martin’s ‘Arsenokoités and Malakos’ Tried and Found Wanting,” Currents in Theology and Mission 33.5 (2006): 397–405; Linda Belleville, “The Challenges of Translating αρσενοκοι̂ται and μαλακοί in 1 Corinthians 6.9: A Reassessment in Light of Koine Greek and First-Century Cultural Mores,” Bible Translator 62.1 (2011): 22–29; Roy E. Ciampa, “‘Flee Sexual Immorality’: Sex and the City of Corinth” in The Wisdom of the Cross: Exploring 1 Corinthians (ed. Brian S. Rosner; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2011), 100–133; Milton L. Torres, “A Evidência Linguística e Extralinguística para a Tradução de arsenokoitai.” Revista Hermenêutica (Cachoeira-BA) 12.2 (2012): 25–49; S. Donald Fortson III and Rollin G. Grams, Unchanging Witness: The Consistent Christian Teaching on Homosexuality in Scripture and Tradition (Nashville: B&H Academic, 2016), 294–98; Simon Hedlund, “Who Are the ἀρσενοκοίται and Why Does Paul Condemn Them?,” Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 82 (2017): 116–53; George M. Hollenback, “An Overlooked Backdrop to the Coining of ἀρσενοκοίτης,” Early Christianity 8.2 (2017): 269–73.

Abstracts for Ethics in Titus Conference

Two weeks ago I had the privilege of participating in the “Ethics in Titus” conference held at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. The conference was hosted by the Research Center for Ethics in Antiquity and Christianity, which is ably led by Prof. Dr. Ruben Zimmermann. In leading this conference Prof. Zimmermann was joined by Dogara Manomi, who has just submitted his doctoral thesis on Titus under Prof. Zimmermann’s supervision. They both were excellent hosts for a stimulating conversation with papers, wonderful meals and even a tour of the city.

They have graciously allowed us to post here the abstracts from the papers of the conference. The papers are to be published in a forthcoming volume in the Context and Norms of New Testament Ethics series within WUNT (Mohr Siebeck).

Titus and the Shaping of Early Christian Identity

I have just read a helpful essay recently published by Jermo Van Nes, titled “Doing Good Deeds: Titus and the Shaping of Early Christian Identity.” The essay appears in the recent book, Drawing and Transcending Boundaries in the New Testament and Early Christianity, ed. Jacobus Kok, Martin Webber, Jermo van Nes (Lit Verlag, 2019). My review of Van Nes’s monograph was recently posted here, and this essay is further helpful work from him.

In this essay Van Nes examines vocabulary in the letter to Titus which denotes insider and outsider status arguing for more variety of groups than in Trebilco’s work. He helpfully points out that the sharp language used for distinguishing the church from outsiders does not sit well with the common idea that the letter presents an accomodationist ethic which intends to alleviate social tensions and make the church more at home in the Greco-Roman world. Rather, the letter marks a sharp division between Cretan believers and the false teachers and unbelievers. The aim of the letter, then, is “to further God’s mission by shaping the Cretan Christian community into a people who in word and deed expose Cretan society to genuine Christian witness” (43).

2017 Publications on the Pastoral Epistles

Thanks to Chuck Bumgardner here is a list of 2017 Publications on the Pastoral Epistles, with a few 2018 thrown in for good measure!


Beck, David R.. “The Linguistic Features of Second Timothy and Its Purpose.” Pages 159‒75 in New Testament Philology: Essays in Honor of David Alan Black. Edited by M. B. Winstead. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2018.

Bulundwe, Luc. “2 Timothy 4:6–8 as Paradigm of the Apostle Paul’s Legacy.” Athens Journal of Social Science 4.4 (2017); online:

Cooper, Marjorie J., and Jay G. Caballero. “Reasoning through Creation Order as a Basis for the Prohibition in 1 Timothy 2:12.” Presbyterion 43.1 (2017): 30‒38. Available on ResearchGate:

Crotty, R. The Christian Survivor: How Roman Christianity Defeated Its Early Competitors. Singapore: Springer, 2017. [note esp. chap 18: “Later Roman Influence on Christianity,” sections 18.5 – 18.7]

Den Dulk, Matthijs. “No More Itch (2 Tim 4.3).” New Testament Studies 64.1 (2018): 81–93.

Dettinger, Dorothee. Neues Leben in der alten Welt: Der Beitrag frühchristlicher Schriften des späten ersten Jahrhunderts zum Diskursüber familiäre Strukturen in der griechisch-römischen Welt. Arbeiten zur Bibel und ihrer Geschichte 59. Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2017. [note “Mahnungen in den Pastoralbriefen,” pp. 273–326; “Ausführungen zu Kindern in den Pastoralbriefen,” pp. 373–78]

Doedens, Jaap. “‘They Also’: Who Are the ‘Chosen Ones’ in 2 Timothy 2:10?” Sárospataki Füzetek 21.2 (2017): 101–8.

Edsall, Benjamin A. “Hermogenes the Smith and Narrative Characterisation in The Acts of Paul: A Note on the Reception of 2 Timothy.” New Testament Studies 64.1 (2018): 108–21.

Elliott, J. K. “The Relevance of Authorial Language, Style, and Usage in the Evaluation of Textual Variants in the Greek New Testament.” Pages 67–84 in The Press of the Text: Biblical Studies in Honor of James W. Voelz. Edited by A. H. Bartlet, Jeffrey Kloha, and Paul R. Raabe. Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2017. [cf. esp. pp. 74–76 on 1 Tim 4:9; 2 Tim 2:11; Titus 3:8; and on 2 Tim 4:22]

Feltham, Marty. “1 Timothy 2:5–6 as a Christological Reworking of the Shema.” Tyndale Bulletin 68.2 (2017): 241–60.

Giles, Kevin. Patterns of Ministry Among the First Christians. 2nd ed. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2017.

González, Eusebio. “Cristo como mediador (μεσίτης) en el NT.” Scripta Theologica (Pamplona, Spain) 49.2 (2017): 279­-299; article with English-language abstract available at

Gorman, Michael J. Apostle of the Crucified Lord: A Theological Introduction to Paul & His Letters. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2017.

Gourgues, Michel. “2 Timothy.” In The Paulist Bible Commentary. Edited by José Enrique Aguilar Chiu et al. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 2018.

Griffiths, J. I. Preaching in the New Testament: An Exegetical and Biblical-Theological Study. New Studies in Biblical Theology 42. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2017. [note chap. 4: “2 Timothy 3–4: The preacher’s charge”]

Harding, Mark. “Apocalypticism in the Pastoral Epistles.” Pages 259ff in Jewish Apocalyptic Tradition and the Shaping of New Testament Thought. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2017.

Harrill, J. A. “‘Without Lies or Deception’: Oracular Claims to Truth in the Epistle to Titus.” New Testament Studies 63.3 (2017): 451–72.

Herzer, Jens. “Die Kommentierung der Pastoralbriefe in der Reihe ‘Kritisch Exegetischer Kommentar’ durch Johannes Eduard Huther und Bernard Weiß.” In Die Geschichte des “Kritisch-exegetischen Kommentars über das Neue Testament.” Edited by E.-M. Becker, F. W. Horn, and D.-A. Koch. Forschungen zur Religion und Literature des Neuen Testament. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2017.

________. “‘Lukas ist allein bei mir’ (2Tim 4,11): Lukas, die Pastoralbriefe und die Konstruktion von Geschichte.” Pages 27–58 in Luke on Jesus, Paul and Christianity: What Did He Really Know? Edited by J. Verheyden and J. S.Kloppenborg. Biblical Tools and Studies 29. Leuven: Peeters, 2017.

________. “Zwischen Mythos und Wahrheit: Neue Perspektiven aud die sogenannten Pastoralbriefen.” New Testament Studies 63.3 (2017): 428-50.

Himes, Paul. “Rethinking the Translation of Διδακτικός in 1 Timothy 3.2 and 2 Timothy 2.24.” The Bible Translator 68.2 (2017): 189–208.

Hoklotubbe, T. Christopher. Civilized Piety: The Rhetoric of Pietas in the Pastoral Epistles and the Roman Empire. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2017.

Hollenback, George M. “An Overlooked Backdrop to the Coining of ἀρσενοκοίτης.” Early Christianity 8.2 (2017): 269–73. [1 Tim 1:10]

Hutson, Christopher R. “God’s Household Manager: Reading the Pastoral Epistles in Light of Philodemus.” Bible, Missions and Ministry 1 (2017). Online:

Jacobs, Maretha M. “On Fairness and Accuracy in the Academy: A Brief Response to Wim Vergeer’s Use of Terminologies, and Some Simplifications, in the Article “The Redeemer in an ‘Irredeemable Text’ (1 Timothy 2:9-15).” Neotestamentica 51.2 (2017): 359–65.

Jeon, Paul S. 1 Timothy: A Charge to God’s Missional Household. 3 vols. Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2017.

Jung, Ji-Moon. “The Adaptation of Christians to Society in the Late First Century and the Early Second Century. (1세기 말 2세기 초 초기 기독교의 현실 적응)” Journal of Chung-Ang Historical Studies 46 (2017): 361‒89. English abstract online:

Kim, Daniel J. (다니엘 김), and Hyoung Gil Kim (김형길). “A Study on Church Leadership Through the Pastoral Epistles. (목회서신을 통해 본 교회 리더십에 관한 연구)” Logos Management Review (로고스경영연구 제) 15.4 (2017): 37‒52. English abstract online:

Kim, Young-in (김영인). “Is Jesus Christ the Predication of God? The Korean Bible Translation of Titus 2:13. (예수 그리스도가 하나님의 서술어인가? 디도서 2:13의 번역 문제)” Journal of Biblical Text Research (성경원문연구) 41.2 (2017): 160‒78. Online:

Kleinig, John W. “Paul’s Antidote for Pastoral Timidity in 2 Timothy 1:6–14.” Logia 26.2 (2017): 7–10.

Köstenberger, Andreas J. Commentary on 1-2 Timothy & Titus. Biblical Theology for Christian Proclamation. Nashville, TN: Holman, 2017.

Lang, Markus. “‘Nützlich’ in den richtigen Händen: Schriftrezeption in den Pastoralbriefen.” Pages 235–48 in Paulinische Schriftrezeption: Grundlagen—Ausprägungen—Wirkungen—Wertungen. Edited by F. Wilk and M. Öhler. Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments 268. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2017.

Lehtipuu, Outi. “To Remarry or Not to Remarry? 1 Timothy 5:14 in Early Christian Ascetic Discourse.” Studia Theologica—Nordic Journal of Theology 71.1 (2017): 29–50. Abstract online:

Lookadoo, Jonathon. “Polycarp, Paul, and the Letters to Timothy.” Novum Testamentum 59.4 (2017): 366–83.

Meletsi, Kyriaki Georgios. “The Organizational Structure of the Christian Church according to the Pastoral Epistles undert the Light of the Hellenic-Roman Cultic Associations.” Ph.D. diss., National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, 2017. Abstract:

Mann, Jeremy. “A Consecrated Cosmos? First Timothy 4:1–5 in Exegetical and Theological Perspective.” Bulletin of Ecclesial Theology 4.2 (2017): 79–88. (Available through

Menzies, Robert P. “Subsequence in the Pauline Epistles.” Pneuma 39 (2017): 342–63. [particular attention given to 2 Tim 1:6–7’s pneumatology]

Mitchell, Margaret M. “Re-envisioning Ekklēsia Space: Evidence of the Flexible Use of Household Space for Religious Instruction and Practice in the Pastoral Epistles.” Archiv für Religionsgeschichte 18/19.1 (2017): 91‒104.

Miller, Jeff. “Saved through Childbearing? 1 Timothy 2:15 as a Hermeneutical Caveat.” Stone Campbell Journal 20.2 (2017): 215‒25.

Mounce, William D. “The Noble Task: Leadership in the Pastoral Epistles.” Pages 438‒51 in Biblical Leadership: Theology for the Everyday Leader. Edited by Benjamin K. Forrest and Chet Roden. Biblical Theology for the Church. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2017.

Neudorfer, Heinz-Werner. Der zweite Brief des Paulus an Timotheus. Historisch-Theologisch Auslegung. Wuppertal: R. Brockhaus, 2017.

O’Donnell, Tim. “The Rhetorical Strategy of 1 Timothy.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 79.3 (2017): 455–75.

Park, Sung-Ho (박성호). “She will be saved through childbearing? Reflection on 1 Timothy 2:15. (해산함으로 구원을 얻으리라? 디모데전서 2:15에 관한 소고)” Journal of Biblical Text Research (성경원문연구) 40.1 (2017): 162‒86. English abstract online:

Park, Taehyeun (박태현). “Calvin’s Understanding of [the] Preacher: With Reference to Les ordon[n]ances ecclésiastiques de 1541 and His Preaching on the Pastoral Epistles” (칼빈의 설교자 이해: 『교회법령』(1541)과 목회서신 강해설교를 중심으로). Korean Reformed Theology (한국개혁신학) 55 (2017): 153‒91. English abstract online:

Patrick, Tim. “The Pastoral Offices in the Pastoral Epistles and the Church of England’s First Ordinal.” In Paul as Pastor. Edited by Brian S. Rosner, Andrew S. Malone, and Trevor J. Burke. New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2017.

Perkins, Larry J. The Pastoral Letters: A Handbook on the Greek Text. Baylor Handbook on the Greek New Testament. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2017.

Rayburn, R. S., and S. A. Nicoletti. “An Elder Must Have Believing Children: Titus 1:6 and a Neglected Case of Conscience.” Presbyterion 43.2 (2017): 69-80.

Sirilla, Michael G. The Ideal Bishop: Aquinas’s Commentaries on the Pastoral Epistles. Thomistic Ressourcement 8. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 2017.

Söding, Thomas. “1 Timothy.“ In The Paulist Bible Commentary. Edited by José Enrique Aguilar Chiu et al. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 2018.

Theobald, Michael. “Titus.“ In The Paulist Bible Commentary. Edited by José Enrique Aguilar Chiu et al. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 2018.

Thornton, Dillon. “Consecrated Creation: First Timothy 4:1–5 as an Underused Remedy for the Cosmological Dualism Prevalent in the Church.” Bulletin of Ecclesial Theology 4.1 (2017): 15–25. (Available through

Trebilco, Paul R. “Engaging—or Not Engaging—the City: Reading 1 and 2 Timothy and the Johannine Letters in the City of Ephesus.” Pages 160–86 in The Urban World and the First Christians. Edited by Steve Walton, Paul R. Trebilco, and David W. J. Gill. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2017.

________. Outsider Designations and Boundary Construction in the New Testament. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. [Note chap. 10, “The Functions of Outsider Designations in the Pastoral Epistles and 1 Peter,” pp. 243–80]

Van Nes, Jermo. “Hapax legomena in Disputed Pauline Letters: A Reassessment.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 109.1 (2018): 118­­­–37.

________. “Missing ‘Particles’ in Disputed Pauline Letters? A Question of Method.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 40.3 (2018): 383–98.

________. Pauline Language and the Pastoral Epistles: A Study of Linguistic Variation in the Corpus Paulinum. Linguistic Biblical Studies 16. Leiden: Brill, 2018.

Van Nes, Jermo, and H. Koning. “Motif-Semantic Differences in Paul? A Question to Advocates of the Pastorals’ Plural Authorship in Dialogue with Michaela Engelmann.” Tyndale Bulletin 68.1 (2017): 73–94.

Wenkel, David H. “The Lord Will Reveal the Lord: God’s Invisibility and Jesus’ Visibility in 1 Timothy.” Horizons in Biblical Theology 39 (2017): 197–210.

Winger, Thomas M. “‘Saved through Child-bearing’? Theology and Hermeneutics in Reading 1 Timothy 2:15.” Pages 283–300 in The Press of the Text: Biblical Studies in Honor of James W. Voelz. Edited by Andrew H. Bartlet, Jeffrey Kloha, and Paul R. Raabe. Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2017.

Yarborough, Robert. “Paul as Working Pastor: Exposing an Open Ethical Secret.” In Paul as Pastor. Edited by Brian S. Rosner, Andrew S. Malone, and Trevor J. Burke. New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2017.

Yates, Kenneth. “All Faith Is Good? (Titus 2:10).” Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society 30.58 (2017): 3‒16. Online:

Zamfir, Korinna. “The Departing Paul: Some Reflections on the Meaning of Spendomai and Its Early Christian Reception.” Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 93.1 (2017): 75–94. [2 Tim 4:6] (available through

Zbroja, Bogdan. “‘Zdrowa doktryna’ jako podstawa jedności chrześcijan w Listach Pasterskich [‘Healthy doctrine’ as the basis for Christian unity in the Pastoral Epistles].” Ruch Biblijny i Liturgiczny 70.3 (2017): 205‒21. Online:

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