Tag: Epistle to Titus (Page 1 of 4)

Pastorals Presentations at 2023 Stone Campbell Journal Conference

The 2023 Stone Campbell Journal Conference occurred earlier this month in Knoxville, Tennessee. Interestingly, out of 31 papers listed from study groups and parallel sessions, four were on the Pastorals:

Baldwin, Brian. “Artemis and Wonder Woman: Artemis Ephesia and 1 Timothy 1–2.” Baldwin’s paper is grounded in the work of Sandra Glahn, which will be presented in her forthcoming volume, Nobody’s Mother: Artemis of the Ephesians in Antiquity and the New Testament. The paper is available here.

Hester, David. “Did Paul Accept The Apocryphon of Jannes and Jambres as Scripture?” Hester finds that Paul was not necessarily referring to the Apocryphon as such in 2 Tim 3:8, and that he did not accept the Apocryphon as Scripture. The paper is available here.

Pereira, Mary Ellen. “Antidotes for Treason: Eusebeia and the Themes of 1 Timothy.” Summary available here.

Sedlacek, James. “The Meaning of αὐθεντεῖν: Some Considerations for 1 Tim 2:12.” Summary available here.

Annual Bibliographies on the Pastorals (2023)

It’s that time of year again! For some years now, we’ve been compiling and posting annual bibliographies for researchers in the Letters to Timothy and Titus. These projects are intended to help researchers in the Pastorals maintain control of the secondary literature, and give some idea of research trends. Our compilation of these bibliographies involves the input of Pastorals scholars who have published previously on the letters. Our thanks to all who contributed!

Our annual bibliography of recent publications on the Letters to Timothy and Titus covers contributions from all of 2022 and early 2023. Over 170 items long and international in scope, the list contains monographs, journal articles, and commentaries, as well as lists of dissertations and conference presentations on the letters. It is available for viewing and downloading here.

Our annual bibliography of forthcoming academic publications on the Letters to Timothy and Titus is wide-ranging, containing over 60 forthcoming works on the Pastoral Epistles, including essays, monographs, and commentaries. In some cases, authors have provided a brief synopsis of their work. This bibliography is available for viewing and downloading here.

De Virgilio, “‘In attesa della beata speranza’ (Tt 2,13).”

I have not seen a new article by Giuseppe De Virgilio for some time, but noticed this one tonight:

De Virgilio, Giuseppe. “‘In attesa della beata speranza’ (Tt 2,13): L’esercizio della speranza nelle Lettere a Timoteo e Tito [‘Waiting for the blessed hope’ (Tit 2:13): The exercise of hope in the Letters to Timothy and Titus].” Ricerche storico-bibliche 34.1–2 (2022): 319–29.

Abstract: “The exercise of hope is examined in the Letters to Timothy and Titus, as a development of the eschatological theme in the Pauline correspondence. The exercise of hope expressed through the use of elpis (1Tm 1,1; Tt 1,2; 2,13; 3,7) and elpizô (1Tm 3,14; 4,10; 5,5; 6,17) is part of the broader vision that characterizes the development of the Pauline tradition. The vital environment of the Pastoral Letters witnesses a climate of active expectation and hope, characterized by long-distance dialogue between the apostle, his faithful interlocutors and their respective Christian communities. In reviewing the attestations of elpis / elpizô and the use of hypomonê / hyomenô and makrothymia in the pastoral corpus, three peculiar aspects of the theme are focused on: a) hope as a sign of the industriousness of the present time and fidelity in its duration; b) the didactic and ethical emphasis on the exercise of hope; c) the pedagogical connotation of hope for the formation of the pastor between the apousíaparousía of Paul.”

De Virgilio is on the faculty of a Roman Catholic institution in Rome, the Pontificia Università della Santa Croce, and has published a great deal of specialist literature on the Pastorals over the years:

“2 Tm 3,14–17: l’identità delle Scrittura ispirata nella prospettiva teologica delle Lettere Pastorali.” Pages 208‒226 in La Sacra Scrittura anima della teologia: Atti del IV Simposio Internazionale della Facoltà Teologia. Edited by M. Tábet. Vatican City: LEV, 1999.

“Aspetti e profili della solidarietà nelle Lettere Pastorali.” Pages 195–222 in Il deposito della fede: Timoteo e Tito. Edited by Giuseppe De Virgilio. Supplementi alla Rivista Biblica 34. Bologna: Dehoniane, 1998.

“L’attesa del tempo e l’esercizio della speranza nelle Pastorali.” Parole di Vita 57.5 (2012): 16–21.

“La categoria paolina della speranza e il suo uso nelle Lettere Pastorali.” Pages 129‒61 in Speranza umana e speranza escatologica. Edited by R. Altobelli and S. Privitera. Teologia morale 11. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano): San Paolo, 2004.

“Chiesa e ministeri nelle Lettere Pastorali.” Pages 107‒34 in Chiesa e ministeri in Paolo. Edited by Giuseppe De Virgilio. Bologna: Dehoniane, 2003.

“‘Dio vuole che tutti gli uomini siano salvi’ (1Tm 2,4)”. Parola Spirito e Vita 1 (2014): 167–182.

“La figura di Paolo nelle Lettere Pastorali.” Parole di Vita 57.4 (2012): 44–50.

“Helpis-helpízein [ἑλπις-ἑλπιζειν] nel corpus pastorale.” Pages 65‒81 in Planus: Quaderno di studi a cura di Giovanni Giorgio (Istituto Teologico Abruzzese-Molisano). Pescara: Sigraf, 2006.

“L’impiego di pistéuein – pistis nelle Lettere a Timoteo e Tito.” Firmana 21.1 (2012): 71‒84.

“‘In attesa della beata speranza’ (Tt 2,13): L’esercizio della speranza nelle Lettere a Timoteo e Tito.” Ricerche storico-bibliche 34.1–2 (2022): 319–29.

“Ispirazione ed efficacia della scrittura in 2Tm 3,14–17: In occasione del XXV anno della promulgazione della Costituzione Dogmatica Dei Verbum.” Rivista biblica italiana 38 (1990): 485–94.

Lettere a Timoteo, Lettera a Tito. Nuovo Testamento: Commento esegetico e spirituale. Rome: Città nuova, 2017.

“Le Lettere Pastorali: profili etico-morali in dialogo con l’ambiente ellenistico.” Bibbia e oriente 48.4 (2006): 223–48.

“Il ministero del pastore nella Chiesa (1Tm 3‒5).” Parole di Vita 5 (2012): 22‒27.

“Πᾶν κτίσμα θεοῦ καλόν (1Tm 4,4). La positività della creazione e la sua dimensione salvifica nelle Lettere Pastorali.” Pages 361–76 in Creation and Salvation in the Bible. Edited by M. V. Fabbri and M. Tábet. Rome: EDUSC, 2009.

“Ravviva il dono di Dio.” Parole di Vita 5 (2012).

Ravviva il dono di DioUna lettura vocazionale di 2Tm 1,1-18. Rome: Rogate, 2018.

“San Paolo ‘Educatore’: Aspetti e motivi pedagogici nell’epistolario paolino.” Rassegna di Teologia 53 (2012): 357–82. (Note “6. L’accentuazione ‘pedagogica’ nelle comunità delle Lettere Pastorali.”)

Krauter, “Cretan Memories”

Stefan Krauter has a new article highlighting the different ways Titus and Acts of Titus portray Crete.

Krauter, Stefan. “Cretan Memories: Crete in the Letter to Titus and the Acts of Titus.” Early Christianity 13 (2022). DOI 10.1628/ec-2022-0027

Abstract: Es ist sehr unwahrscheinlich, dass Paulus auf Kreta zusammen mit seinem Mitarbeiter Titus Gemeinden von Christusgläubigen gegründet hat, wie es Tit 1,5 behauptet wird. Dennoch ist der fiktive kretische Schauplatz des Titusbriefes nicht einfach Zufall, sondern spielt in der Argumentation des Briefes eine wichtige Rolle: Die Kreter dienen als paradigmatische Barbaren, die zivilisiert werden müssen. Dazu werden negative Stereotypen über die Kreter aus der hellenistischen und frührömischen Zeit aktiviert. Die Titusakten sind vom Titusbrief abhängig. Ihr Bild von Kreta unterscheidet sich jedoch deutlich von dem negativen Bild, das im Brief gezeichnet wird. Sie stützen sich beispielsweise auf Erinnerungen an Minos, den König und Gesetzgeber der Kreter, und knüpfen an positive Aspekte der kretischen Vergangenheit an, die für die lokale kretische Elite im Römischen Reich wichtig waren. (DeepL translation to English)

I found the following footnote (7) in Krauter’s article helpful as a guide for any scholars in Titus who wish to pursue the historical background of Crete: “The groundbreaking archaeological work on Roman Crete was the posthumously published dissertation by I. F. Sanders, Roman Crete: An Archaeological Survey and Gazeteer of Late Hellenistic, Roman, and Early Byzantine Crete (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1982). For an easily accessible overview, cf. T. Bechert, Kreta in römischer Zeit (Darmstadt: von Zabern, 2011). Historical (esp. epigraphical) research on Hellenistic and Roman Crete has been carried out by Angelos Chaniotis. A summary of his work, which is readable also for non-specialists, is given in A. Chaniotis, Das antike Kreta, 3rd ed. (Munich: Beck, 2020). For a comprehensive treatment of Cretan history in English, cf. C. Moorey, A History of Crete (London: Haus, 2019), esp. 55–107.”

Pastorals at archive.org

You may have been unaware, as I was until yesterday, that a good number of Pastorals commentaries and monographs are available in full at archive.org. With a free account, you can “borrow” the volumes for an hour at a time, renewable every hour pending availability.

Bartsch, Die Anfänge urchristlicher Rechtsbildungen: Studien zu den Pastoralbriefen

Beker, Heirs of Paul. Their Legacy in the New Testament and the Church Today

Brandt, Das anvertraute Gut. Eine Einführung in die Briefe an Timotheus und Titus

Brox, Die Pastoralbriefe: 1 Timotheus, 2 Timotheus, Titus (RNT) (note this is the 1969 4th edition, not the 1989 5th edition)

Dibelius, Die Pastoralbriefe (HNT) (note this is the 1966 4th and final edition, revised by Hans Conzelmann)

Donelson, Colossians, Ephesians, 1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus

Fruendorfer, “Die Pastoralbriefe,” in K. Staab and J. Fruendorfer, Die Thessalonicherbriefe, die Gefangenschaftsbriefe und die Pastoralbriefe (RNT)

Glaser, Paulus als Briefroman erzählt: Studien zum antiken Briefroman und seiner christlichen Rezeption in den Pastoralbriefen

Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles, rev. ed. (TNTC)

Hanson, The Pastoral Letters (CBC)

Harding, What Are They Saying about the Pastoral Epistles?

Harrison, The Problem of the Pastoral Epistles

Holtz, Die Pastoralbriefe (THKNT) (note this is the 1965 edition; the final edition of Holtz was the 5th, published in 1992)

Houlden, The Pastoral Epistles

Huizenga, Moral Education for Women in the Pastoral and Pythagorean Letters: Philosophers of the Household

Jeremias, Die Briefe an Timotheus und Titus (NTD) (note this is an early edition from 1947; the 12th and latest edition is from 1981)

Johnson, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus (KPG)

Karris, The Pastoral Epistles (NTM)

Kelly, A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles

Kidd, Wealth and Beneficence in the Pastoral Epistles

Knight, The Faithful Sayings in the Pastoral Letters

Köstenberger, Schreiner, and Baldwin, eds. Women in the Church: A Fresh Analysis of 1 Timothy 2:9–15 (1st ed., 1995)

Kroger and Kroger, I Suffer Not a Woman: Rethinking 1 Timothy 2:11-15 in Light of Ancient Evidence

Lau, Manifest in Flesh: The Epiphany Christology of the Pastoral Epistles

de Lestapis, L’énigme des Pastorales de Saint Paul

Liefeld, 1 & 2 Timothy / Titus (NIVAC)

Lütgert, Die Irrlehrer der Pastoralbriefe

MacDonald, The Legend and the Apostle: The Battle for Paul in Story and Canon

MacDonald, The Pauline Churches: A Socio-Historical Study of Institutionalism in the Pauline and Deutero-Pauline Writings

Maier, Die Hauptprobleme der Pastoralbriefe Pauli

Malina and Pilch, Social-Science Commentary on the Deutero-Pauline Letters

Martin, Pauli Testamentum: 2 Timothy and the Last Words of Moses

Meinertz, Die Pastoralbriefe des heiligen Paulus

Merz, Die fiktive Selbstauslegung des Paulus: Intertextuelle Studien zur Intention und Rezeption der Pastoralbriefe

Metzger, Der Christushymnus 1. Timotheus 3,16: Fragment einer Homologie der paulinischen Gemeinden

Mounce, The Pastoral Epistles (WBC)

Oberlinner, Die Pastoralbriefe: Kommentar zum Titusbrief (HTKNT)

Oberlinner, Die Pastoralbriefe: Kommentar zum zweiten Timotheusbrief (HTKNT)

Oden, First and Second Timothy and Titus (IBC)

Quinn, The Letter to Titus (AB)

Ramos, I Timoteo, II Timoteo, y Tito

Ridderbos, De Pastorale brieven

Schlarb, Die gesunde Lehre. Häresie und Wahrheit im Spiegel der Pastoralbriefe

Schlatter, Die Kirche der Griechen im Urteil des Paulus: Eine Auslegung seiner Briefe an Timotheus und Titus (note this is the 1958 second edition; a third edition was published in 1983)

Schwarz, Bürgerliches Christentum im Neuen Testament? eine Studie zu Ethik, Amt und Recht in den Pastoralbriefen

Spain, The Letters of Paul to Timothy and Titus

Spicq, Les Épîtres pastorales (note this is the 1943 edition, which I believe is the 1st edition. Typically, the 4th edition from 1969 is used for scholarly work)

Taylor, “1 and 2 Timothy, Titus,” in The Deutero-Pauline Letters: Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 & 2 Timothy, Titus

Thurston, The Widows: A Women’s Ministry in the Early Church

Towner, The Letters to Timothy and Titus (NICNT)

Trummer, Die Paulustradition der Pastoralbriefe

Wagener, Die Ordnung des “Hauses Gottes.” Der Ort von Frauen in der Ekklesiologie und Ethik des Pastoralbriefe

Wilson, Luke and the Pastoral Epistles

Wolter, Die Pastoralbriefe als Paulustradition

Wright, Paul for Everyone: The Pastoral Letters

White, “Setting the Boundaries”

A new article on 1 Timothy and Titus may be of interest to Pastorals scholars:

Adam G. White, “Setting the Boundaries: Reading 1 Timothy and Titus as Community Charters.” Biblical Theology Bulletin 52.4 (2022): 242–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461079221133447

This is the published version of research presented at the 2021 SBL meeting. White recently published Paul, Community, and Discipline: Establishing Boundaries and Dealing with the Disorderly, Paul in Critical Context (Minneapolis: Lexington/Fortress Academic, 2021), which has a chapter on the Pastorals (“Establishing Traditions: Discipline and Expulsion in the Pastoral Epistles,” pp. 217–32).

Here’s the abstract: “Those attempting to interpret 1 Timothy and Titus face a myriad of uncertainties. No less amongst these is determining the type of the literature that they are. While they are clearly framed as epistles, they do not resemble anything that is known from the Hellenistic literary theorists. What is generally agreed, however, is that the purpose of the two letters is community formation. That is, 1 Timothy and Titus were written to instruct the recipients on various matters of community structure and organisation. Building on this assumption, it is my contention that the two letters share many of the same characteristics as community charters found in similar, contemporary groups. In what follows, 1 Timothy and Titus will be compared side by side with formal charters found in associations as well as in the Essene community, noting the many similarities between them.”

Percival, “The Plan of Salvation in the Letters to Timothy and Titus”

John Percival has finished up his Cambridge PhD thesis on the Pastorals, and researchers in the Pastorals will want to engage his work in their own where they can. Because of the nature of the project, it will be germane to other research done throughout all three letters. This is true not only for the thesis’s main area of investigation, the plan of salvation, but also in the way it examines distinctions among the three letters.

Here’s the abstract:

“The New Testament letters to Timothy and Titus (LTT) are often lumped together as ‘The Pastoral Epistles.’ While there are understandable reasons for this approach, it has meant that the distinctive contribution of each of the three letters has not been sufficiently considered. Furthermore, narrative approaches to the Pauline letters have led to fruitful explorations of their theology, especially from a salvation-historical perspective, but these approaches have not been applied to the LTT, at least in part due to their marginal status in the conversation. Taken together, this has impoverished our understanding of the theology and purpose of the LTT.
“Therefore, this thesis employs a narrative approach to examine the salvation-historical outlook of each of the LTT. This is accomplished by adopting minimal assumptions about authorship and reviewing each letter in turn, describing the components of a narrative ‘plan of salvation.’ The relationship between the elements of the plan is examined so as to shed light on the narrative world, theology and, especially, the rhetorical purpose of the letter. For such short letters, there is a wealth of data and clear differences between the three. Thus we are able to identify areas where the letters have been misrepresented or misunderstood in scholarly literature, offering a fresh and creative contribution to scholarship on the LTT. The outcome is a clearer understanding of the distinctive contribution of each letter, particularly in terms of the plan of salvation as conceived from a narrative perspective.”

For more information, see this Cambridge repository page.

The Pastorals in WUNT

Recently, the Pastorals seem to be having an outsized presence in Mohr Siebeck’s Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament series. The following are recently published and forthcoming volumes in WUNT 1 and and WUNT 2 which each focus solely on one or more of the Pastorals. Authorship/editorship is widespread: Australia (Kidson), Germany (Herzer, Zimmermann), Nigeria (Manomi), Switzerland (Bulundwe), USA (Langford).

Lyn Kidson, Persuading Shipwrecked Men: Rhetorical Strategies in 1 Timothy (WUNT 2/526; 2020) (RBL review) (JETS) (ABR) (JSNT)
Dogara Ishaya Manomi, Virtue Ethics in the Letter to Titus: An Interdisciplinary Study (WUNT 2/560; 2021)
Jens Herzer, Die Pastoralbriefe und das Vermächtnis des Paulus: Studien zu den Briefen an Timotheus und Titus (WUNT 476; 2022)
Ruben Zimmermann and Dogara Ishaya Manomi, eds. “Ready for Every Good Work” (Titus 3:1): Implicit Ethics in the Letter to Titus (WUNT 484; 2022)
Andrew M. Langford, Diagnosing Deviance: Pathology and Polemic in the Pastoral Epistles (WUNT 2/ ; 2022 est.)
Kampotela Luc Bulundwe, 2 Timothée dans le corpus paulinien. Analyse mémorielle (WUNT 2/ ; 2022 or 2023)

To be sure, plenty of single essays on one or more of the Pastorals have appeared in edited WUNT collections. However, before the recent spate of volumes just noted, only the following WUNT volumes (to my knowledge) focused solely on one or more of the Pastorals (or, for Trebilco and Smith, were monographs with a very significant Pastorals component):

Ulrike Wagener, Die Ordnung des “Hauses Gottes.” Der Ort von Frauen in der Ekklesiologie und Ethik des Pastoralbriefe (WUNT 2/65; 1994)
Andrew Y. Lau, Manifest in Flesh: The Epiphany Christology of the Pastoral Epistles (WUNT 2/86; 1996)
Hanna Stettler, Die Christologie der Pastoralbriefe (WUNT 2/105; 1998)
Paul R. Trebilco, The Early Christians in Ephesus from Paul to Ignatius (WUNT 166; 2004)
Bernhard Mutschler, Glaube in den Pastoralbriefen: Pistis als Mitte christlicher Existenz (WUNT 256; 2010)
Claire Smith, Pauline Communities as “Scholastic Communities”: A Study of the Vocabulary of “Teaching” in 1 Corinthians, 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus (WUNT 2/335; 2012)

The first batch of volumes above has six WUNT volumes on the Pastorals being published in around four years (2020–2023). The earlier batch of volumes, another half-dozen, spans nearly two decades (1994–2012).

Zimmermann and Manomi, eds., “Ready for Every Good Work” (Titus 3:1)

Mohr Siebeck has now listed as forthcoming the volume containing the proceedings of the 2019 “Ethics in Titus” conference held in Mainz:

Ruben Zimmermann and Dogara Ishaya Manomi, eds. “Ready for Every Good Work” (Titus 3:1): Implicit Ethics in the Letter to Titus. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 484. Kontexte und Normen neutestamentlicher Ethik / Contexts and Norms of New Testament Ethics 13. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2022.

My email to Mohr Siebeck confirmed that the volume is scheduled for formal release on 30 September 2022. The contributors to the volume are a veritable “who’s who” in Pastorals scholarship:

Ruben Zimmermann/Dogara Ishaya Manomi: The »Implicit Ethics« in Titus. Introductory Remarks and Summary of the Contributions

I. Linguistic and Rhetorical Aspects of the Implicit Ethics: A Text-immanent Approach
Luke Timothy Johnson: The Pedagogy of Grace. The Experiential Basis of Morality in Titus
Annette Bourland Huizenga: Moral Education in Titus. Antitheses for Ethical Living
Dogara Ishaya Manomi: The Language of Virtue. Discovering Implicit Virtue-Ethical Linguistic Elements in Titus
Rick Brannan: The Language of Ethical Instruction in the Letter to Titus. A View Informed by Discourse Grammar and Speech Act Theory
Jermo van Nes: Moral Language and Ethical Argument in Titus. A Reassessment of the Pseudonymity Hypothesis
Philip H. Towner: The Ethical Agenda of Titus. The Time and Space of Ethics

II. Historical and Contextual Dimensions of the Implicit Ethics: A Socio-historial Approach
Jens Herzer: Ethics, Ethos, and Truth. Reassessing the Question of the Individuality of the Pastoral Epistles
Michael Theobald: Internal Ethos or Ethos before the Public Forum? Titus and His Construct of the Opponents
Ray Van Neste: »Our People«. Ethics and the Identity of the People of God in the Letter to Titus
Harry O. Maier: Ethics and Empire in Titus. Texts, Co-texts, and Contexts

III. The Relevance of the Implicit Ethics: A Hermeneutical Approach
Korinna Zamfir: Women’s Vocation and Ministry according to Titus. Ethical Issues and Their Contemporary Relevance
Claire S. Smith: Ethics of Teaching and Learning in Christianity Today. Insights from the Book of Titus
Hans-Ulrich Weidemann: Written to Be with Paul. Reading Galatians with Titus
Marianne Bjelland Kartzow: »Speak evil of no one!« (Titus 3:2).

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