We have not yet highlighted a recently published monograph in the WUNT series which has a section of substantive interaction with the Pastorals:
Falcetta, Alessandro. Early Christian Teachers: The ‘Didaskaloi’ from Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2/516. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2020.
Mohr Siebeck provides this summary of the work: “Were the ‘didaskaloi’ tradents of the Jesus material and therefore guarantors of the historical reliability of the Gospels? And why was their fate so different from that of the rabbis? Alessandro Falcetta tackles these and other challenging questions in his study of one of the most intriguing groups in early Christianity – its teachers – and, by surveying all the earliest sources mentioning them, unveils the first century of their history.”
The table of contents indicates that Falcetta provides a 30-page survey of teaching and teachers in the Pastorals (pp. 145-76). I provide here his conclusions (p. 176), which give some of the flavor of the larger work.
“The adversaries of the Pastorals were members of the community and were probably called ‘teachers’ by their followers. These teachers paid attention to some requirements of the law and advocated some form of realised eschatology. They were very active in spreading their views and some of them might have been women. The author(s) of the Pastorals disagreed with their doctrines and might have sensed that they threatened the very existence of the community as separate from the synagogue. In order to oppose these ‘teachers of the law,’ the author(s) presented Paul as the only teacher. The only correct teaching is the one coming from Paul, who has entrusted it to Timothy and Titus, who have entrusted it to reliable and capable people, mainly presbyters and bishops. What is transmitted is a fixed deposit of teaching, whereas the title ‘teacher’ is not transmitted. The reason is simple: disciples who do not become teachers cannot alter the deposit. The development of a community structure similar to the rabbinical one slowly emerging in Judaism was therefore put out of the question. However, the disciples can become presbyters and bishops. These are appointed on account of their talents, but [it] is the appointment, not their talents, that is the basis of their authority.”
Two final notes. First, Falcetta engages Italian-language scholarship in the footnotes, which is not common at all for works on the Pastorals published in English, and will provide some (somewhat dated) guidance in that language for those researching teaching/teachers in the Pastorals. Second, the work is a revision of his 2006 dissertation, so in spite of the 2020 publication date, the secondary literature largely reflects the state of research fifteen years ago; I noticed in the section on the Pastorals only one source which postdated the original work. Aside from the voluminous literature on 1 Tim 2:8-15, with its reference to teaching in v. 12, more current pertinent literature would include especially Claire Smith, Pauline Communities as “Scholastic Communities”: A Study of the Vocabulary of “Teaching” in 1 Corinthians, 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus (WUNT 2/335; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012), but also the following:
De Virgilio, Giuseppe. “San Paolo ‘Educatore’: Aspetti e motivi pedagogici nell’epistolario paolino.” Rassegna di Teologia 53 (2012): 357–82. (Note “6. L’accentuazione ‘pedagogica’ nelle comunità delle Lettere Pastorali.”)
Eisele, Wilfried. “Vom ‘Zuchtmeister Gesetz’ zur ‘erziehenden Gnade’ (Gal 3,24f.; Tit 2,11f.): Religiöse Erziehung in der Paulustradition.” Biblische Zeitschrift 56.1 (2012): 65–84.
Krumbiegel, Friedemann. Erziehung in den Pastoralbriefen: Ein Konzept zur Konsolidierung der Gemeinden. Arbeiten zur Bibel und ihrer Geschichte 44. Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2013.
Kucharski, J. “Paweł z Tarsu jako nauczyciel według Drugiego Listu do Tymoteusza [Paul of Tarsus as a Teacher according to 2 Timothy].” Pages 961‒84 in vol. 2 of Więcej szczęścia jest w dawaniu aniżeli w braniu: księga pamiątkowa dla Księdza Profesora Waldemara Chrostowskiego w 60. rocznicę urodzin. Edited by B. Strzałkowska. Ad Multos Annos 15. Warsaw: Stowarzyszenie Biblistów Polskich, 2011.
MacDonald, Margaret Y. “Always Be Steady and Endure Suffering (2 Timothy 4,1‒22): Advising the Teacher in the Roman Imperial World.” Pages 87–109 in 2 Timothy and Titus Reconsidered: Der 2. Timotheus- und der Titusbrief in neuem Licht. Edited by Reimund Bieringer. Colloquium Oecumenicum Paulinum 20. Leuven: Peeters, 2018.