Author: Rick Brannan (Page 2 of 13)

Early(ish) Witnesses to the Pastoral Epistles

I&rsquot;ve recently taken the time to work through the contents of papyri and uncials dated 5th century and before, from a few different sources. I was pleasantly surprised at the number of MSS witnessing the Pastoral Epistles.

MS Date Contents
P32 ca 200 (Comfort & Barrett: 150-200) Titus 1.11-15; 2.3-8
01 (Sinaiticus) 5th century 1Ti, 2Ti, Titus
02 (Alexandrinus) 5th century 1Ti, 2Ti, Titus
04 (Ephraemi) 5th century 1Ti 1.1-3.9; 5.20-6.21; 2Ti 1.1-2; Titus 1.1-2
016 5th century 1Ti 1.1-3, 10-13; 1.19-2.1, 9-13; 3.7-9; 4.1-3, 10-13; 5.5-9, 16-19; 6.1-2, 9-11, 17-19; 2Ti 1.1-3, 10-12; 2.2-5, 14-16, 22-24; 3.6-8, 3.16-4.1, 8-1, 18-20; Titus 1.1-3, 10-11; 2.4-6, 14-15; 3.8-9
048 5th century 1Ti 5.5-6.17, 20-21; 2Ti 1.4-6, 8; 2.2-25; Titus 3.13-15
061 5th century (Tisch: 4th-6th) 1Ti 3.15-16; 4.1-3; 6.2-4, 5-8
088 5th-6th century Titus 1.1-13
0240 5th century Titus 1.4-8
0241 5th-6th century 1Ti 3.16-4.3, 8-11

Dates are from NA27 unless otherwise specified.

My sources include:

Comfort & Barrett, $amz(0842352651 The Text of the Earliest Greek New Testament Manuscripts). [Logos Version]

Tischendorf’s Novum Testamentum Graece, Editio Octavo Critica Maior, prolegomena volume [Logos Version]

NA27 Appendix I, Codices Graeci et Latini in hac editione adhibiti.

Wieland’s “The Significance of Salvation: A Study of Salvation Language in the Pastoral Epistles”

I’ve been slowly working through George Wieland’s The Significance of Salvation: A Study of Salvation Language in the Pastoral Epistles, published by Paternoster. It is excellent, and it is likewise an excellent example of how a monograph focused on a topic within a book (or books) of the New Testament can be extremely valuable.

Commentaries can be valuable too, but a focused monograph like Wieland’s can spend its time dealing with a particular subject (this one on the use of salvation language in the Pastorals) without the baggage of everything else a commentary has to handle.

This book lists at $33.99, but until May 27, 2009 you can get it for 50% off (so, $17 + S&H) at Eisenbrauns. If you have $20 in your book budget to spare, you should pick it up.

The Significance of SalvationThe Significance of Salvation
A Study of Salvation Language in the Pastoral Epistles
Paternoster Biblical Monographs-PBM
by George M. Wieland
Paternoster Press, 2006
xxii + 344 pages, English
Paper, 6 x 9
ISBN: 1842272578
List Price: $33.99
Your Price: $17.00 (Until May 27, 2009)

Second Timothy Notes, all in one PDF file

If you’ve been following my series on Translating Second Timothy, you know that I’ve made it through the epistle. (In less than three months, not bad, huh?)

I’ve gathered all of the posts into one PDF file. Grab it if you’re interested. If you have further interest in the material (specifically in distributing it or publishing it in some way) please contact me for further information.

I’m very interested in any feedback you may have. Feel free to email me at rick at pastoral epistles dot com with any comments, encouragement, criticism or flat-out disagreement.

Bill Mounce on 1Ti 2.15 (saved through childbirth)

Today’s “Mondays with Mounce” on Zondervan’s Koinonia blog discusses that ever-confusing verse, 1Ti 2.15. Here’s Mounce’s summary:

The position I take in my commentary [Mounce wrote the $amz(0849902452 WBC volume on the Pastorals) — RB] is that Paul is talking about how women work out their salvation, in the same sense that Paul says all of us should work out our salvation (σωτηριαν κατεργαζεσθε) with fear and trembling (Phil 2:12). The women were not to listen to what the opponents were teaching, looking for other avenues of how their Christian commitment should show itself, which probably included staying out of marriage (1 Tim 4:3) and hence childbirth. But they were to stay in their marriages and see their God-given privilege of bearing children as something to be enjoyed and treasured.

But whatever your specific interpretation, Paul’s consistent use of σωζω argues for some understanding of spiritual salvation in this passage, and not some other meaning more accurately conveyed by ῥυομαι.

Second Timothy 4.19-22

[This is part of a running series on translating Second Timothy. See the introductory post for more information — RB]

Phrasing/Translation: 2Ti 4.19-22

19 Ἄσπασαι
19 Greet
    καὶ Ἀκύλαν
    and Aquila
    καὶ τὸν Ὀνησιφόρου οἶκον.
    and the household of Onesiphorus.

20 Ἔραστος ἔμεινεν
20 Erastus remained
    ἐν Κορίνθῳ,
    in Corinth,

Τρόφιμον δὲ ἀπέλιπον
and Trophimus I left
    ἐν Μιλήτῳ
    in Miletus
    as he was sick.

21 Σπούδασον
21 Make every effort
    πρὸ χειμῶνος ἐλθεῖν.
    to come before winter.

Ἀσπάζεταί σε Εὔβουλος
Eubulus greets you,
    καὶ Πούδης
    as do Pudens
    καὶ Λίνος
    and Linus
    καὶ Κλαυδία
    and Claudia
    καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ πάντες.
    and all the brothers.

22 Ὁ κύριος
22 The Lord be
    μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματός σου.
    with your spirit.

ἡ χάρις
Grace be
    μεθʼ ὑμῶν.
    with you all.


Verse 19

Ἄσπασαι] The whole verse is a greeting, a fairly common phenomenon in Paul’s letters (e.g. Romans 16) and also generally amongst letters found in the papyri (see Francis Xavier J. Exler, $amz(1592442153 A Study in Greek Epistolography: The Form of an Ancient Greek Letter)). Paul is sending greetings to several parties in Ephesus, instructing Timothy to greet these people in his name.

Πρίσκαν καὶ Ἀκύλαν] Prisca (elsewhere Priscilla) and Aquila, a couple known to Paul as evidenced in other letters (Ro 16.3; 1Co 16.19) and Acts (Acts 18.2, 18, 26).

καὶ τὸν Ὀνησιφόρου οἶκον] Mentioned earlier in 2Ti 1.16.

Verse 20

Ἔραστος ἔμεινεν] “Erastus” is a topical frame; we have a switch from the greetings to Paul’s dispensing of information. This name is mentioned in the greeting section of Romans (Rom 16.23) and also in Acts (Acts 19.22).

ἐν Κορίνθῳ] prepositional phrase, modifying the verb “remained”; Paul is giving Timothy information as to Erastus’ whereabouts.

Τρόφιμον δὲ ἀπέλιπον] The δὲ is developmental; we see a progression of information regarding the location of another person. Trophimus is mentioned in Acts 20.4; 21.29. In Acts 21.29, Trophimus is described as “the Ephesian”; in Acts 20.4 he is associated with Timothy and Tychicus.

ἐν Μιλήτῳ] prepositional phrase, modifying ἀπέλιπον, again giving location.

ἀσθενοῦντα] participial clause, here providing circumstance of Paul’s leaving Trophimus. Modifying the main verb ἀπέλιπον.

Verse 21

Σπούδασον] imperative verb; Paul is shifting from information reporting to a final instruction.

πρὸ χειμῶνος ἐλθεῖν] prepositional phrase, modifying previous verb, giving the time frame in which Timothy is to attempt to come to Paul.

Ἀσπάζεταί σε Εὔβουλος] More greetings. Here, the greetings are sent from Paul to Timothy; these are likely people who also know Timothy or who know of him and/or his task in Ephesus. This whole portion of greetings is curious because earlier Paul had mentioned that only Luke was with him (2Ti 4.11). These could also be people that Paul is in contact with via letter.

καὶ Πούδης καὶ Λίνος καὶ Κλαυδία] As with Eubulus, this is the only mention of these names (Pudens, Linus, and Claudia) in the New Testament.

καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ πάντες] This is a catch-all, basically “and all the other believers here”.

Verse 22

Ὁ κύριος] Shift from greetings to a final benediction. This clause has an implied “to be” verb.

μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματός σου] prepositional phrase, modifies the implied verb. Note that this is singular, “the Lord be with your spirit”.

ἡ χάρις] Another topic shift, now to grace. Again, this clause has an implied “to be” verb.

μεθʼ ὑμῶν] prepositional phrase, modifies the implied verb. Here the pronoun is plural, “Grace be with you (plural)”.

Second Timothy 4.16-18

[This is part of a running series on translating Second Timothy. See the introductory post for more information — RB]

Phrasing/Translation: 2Ti 4.16-18

    16 Ἐν τῇ πρώτῃ μου ἀπολογίᾳ
    16 At my first defense
οὐδείς μοι παρεγένετο,
nobody came to my aid,
ἀλλὰ πάντες με ἐγκατέλιπον·
but all abandoned me.

μὴ αὐτοῖς λογισθείη·
May it not be counted against them.

17 ὁ δὲ κύριός μοι παρέστη καὶ ἐνεδυνάμωσέν με,
17 But the Lord stood with me and strengthened me,
    so that
        διʼ ἐμοῦ
        through me
    τὸ κήρυγμα πληροφορηθῇ
    the preaching might be fully presented
    καὶ ἀκούσωσιν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη,
    and all the nations might hear;

καὶ ἐρρύσθην
and I was rescued 
    ἐκ στόματος λέοντος.
    out of the lion’s mouth.

18 ῥύσεταί με ὁ κύριος
18 The Lord will rescue me
    ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔργου πονηροῦ
    from all evil works

καὶ σώσει
and will deliver me
    εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ τὴν ἐπουράνιον·
    into His heavenly kingdom.

ᾧ ἡ δόξα
To Him [be] the glory
    εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν.
    forever and ever, amen.


Verse 16

Ἐν τῇ πρώτῃ μου ἀπολογίᾳ] fronted prepositional phrase acting as a frame, modifying the following verb παρεγένετο, providing information necessary to understand what follows. This sets the scene for the following comment about no one coming to Paul’s aid.

οὐδείς μοι παρεγένετο] This (plus the prepositional phrase) forms the counterpoint of a point-counterpoint structure hinged on ἀλλὰ (which follows). Note the positioning of οὐδείς (nobody), it has prominence in this clause. This is important because of the upcoming contrast (marked by ἀλλὰ) with πάντες (all, everyone) in the following clause.

ἀλλὰ πάντες με ἐγκατέλιπον] The point of the point-counterpoint structure. Recall in these structures the notion of correction or replacement is present. Here it is correction; the thought Paul wants you to leave with upon exiting this clause complex is that everyone abandoned him.

μὴ αὐτοῖς λογισθείη] Here the pronoun refers to the ones who abandoned Paul; he indicates that such abandonment should not be held against those whom he expected would come.

Verse 17

δὲ] This δὲ is developmental. Paul has just explained how nobody came to help him, everyone abandoned him. “But” here means there is more to the story, and Paul will now tell it. Even though nobody else was with him, the Lord was with him.

ὁ δὲ κύριός μοι παρέστη καὶ ἐνεδυνάμωσέν με] The subject of the clause is ὁ κύριός (the Lord); the Lord is the one who is with Paul. Note the duplication of the pronoun referring to Paul; the first pronoun with the first verb, the second pronoun the object of the second verb. Paul is making very plain that when everyone else abandoned him, the Lord stood with him and gave him the strength to make it through.

ἵνα] indicates a subordinate clause; this sheds light on the purpose for Paul’s deliverance from prison.

διʼ ἐμοῦ] prepositional phrase, fronted in the subordinate clause; this serves as a spatial frame (Runge) introducing the subordinate clause. The following actions are to be seen with Paul as responsible, because of the action of God. Paul sees these things as the reason (as God’s purpose) for his incarceration.

τὸ κήρυγμα πληροφορηθῇ] passive subjunctive verb; the preaching is what is presented “through Paul”.

καὶ ἀκούσωσιν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη] Here καὶ joins the two subjunctive verbs; this verb is active; all the nations hear “through Paul”.

καὶ ἐρρύσθην] The καὶ connects back to the clause that begins v. 17. The effect of the Lord’s standing with and strengthening Paul is Paul’s rescue.

ἐκ στόματος λέοντος] prepositional phrase modifying ἐρρύσθην.

Verse 18

ῥύσεταί με ὁ κύριος] Verse 17 (and the “rescue” mentioned there) was in reference to a specific instance; here Paul is speaking more generally of being rescued. Note the subject (ὁ κύριος, “the Lord”) and the object (με, pronoun referring to Paul)

ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔργου πονηροῦ] prepositional phrase, modifying ῥύσεταί. Here is how we know this is more general than the above.

καὶ σώσει] Here καὶ connects σώσει and ῥύσεταί; thus we can assume the same subject and object from ῥύσεταί.

εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ τὴν ἐπουράνιον] prepositional phrase, modifying σώσει. Note the function of the two semantically similar verbs and the motion implied by the modifying prepositional phrases. Paul will be “rescued from” his current situation, “all evil works”, the sin he wrestles with and lives within here; and he will be “delivered to” his next situation, “his kingdom in heaven”. The language helps us visualize Paul’s situation of life, and the promise of moving from this world into the kingdom, of which he is truly a citizen.

ᾧ ἡ δόξα] relative clause. The pronoun resolves to the referent of “his” in v. 18, which is “the Lord”, the one who rescues Paul and delivers him into his kingdom.

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν] prepositional phrase, here establishing a time component, modifying the implied “to be” verb in the relative clause.

Second Timothy 4.14-15

[This is part of a running series on translating Second Timothy. See the introductory post for more information — RB]

Phrasing/Translation: 2Ti 4.14-15

14 Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ χαλκεὺς πολλά μοι κακὰ ἐνεδείξατο·
14 Alexander the coppersmith inflicted a great deal of harm to me.

ἀποδώσει αὐτῷ ὁ κύριος
The Lord will repay him
    κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ·
    in accordance with his deeds.
    15 ὃν καὶ σὺ φυλάσσου,
    15 You also must guard against him,
        λίαν γὰρ ἀντέστη τοῖς ἡμετέροις λόγοις.
        for he is quite opposed to our message.


Verse 14

Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ χαλκεὺς] apposition; “the coppersmith” is a descriptor of “Alexander”. Perhaps there was more than one “Alexander” and the apposition was needed to disambiguate. This is a topical frame; Paul is changing the subject again.

πολλά μοι κακὰ ἐνεδείξατο] There is a direct object, “a great deal of harm” and an indirect object “to me”. These complete the verb; “he inflicted a great deal of harm to me”.

ἀποδώσει αὐτῷ ὁ κύριος] The pronoun refers to Alexander the coppersmith.

κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ] prepositional phrase, modifying the verb in the previous segment. Again, the pronoun refers to Alexander.

Verse 15

ὃν καὶ σὺ φυλάσσου] relative clause. The first pronoun refers to Alexander; the second pronoun refers to Timothy. Note the shifting of the word order in order to make sense in English, while the phrase “whom also you must guard [against]” makes some sense, in the larger translation it is clunky. Note the adverbial καὶ; it does not function to join clauses but serves an additive function within the relative clause.

λίαν γὰρ ἀντέστη τοῖς ἡμετέροις λόγοις] Here γὰρ connects this dependent clause marking its explanatory value; Paul gives Timothy reason why Alexander is dangerous because he is opposed to the true doctrine taught by Paul and Timothy. Interesting here is the characterization of the true teaching as “our message” instead of simply true doctrine or proper teaching.

Second Timothy 4.9-13

[This is part of a running series on translating Second Timothy. See the introductory post for more information — RB]

Phrasing/Translation: 2Ti 4.9-13

9 Σπούδασον
9 Make every effort
    to come
        πρός με ταχέως·
        to me quickly.

10 Δημᾶς γάρ με ἐγκατέλιπεν
10 For Demas deserted me,
    ἀγαπήσας τὸν νῦν αἰῶνα
    having loved the present age,

καὶ ἐπορεύθη
and journeyed
    εἰς Θεσσαλονίκην,
    into Thessalonica,

    εἰς Γαλατίαν,
    into Galatia,

and Titus
    εἰς Δαλματίαν·
    into Dalmatia.

11 Λουκᾶς ἐστιν μόνος
11 Luke alone is
    μετʼ ἐμοῦ.
    with me.

    Μᾶρκον ἀναλαβὼν
    Take along Mark
ἄγε μετὰ σεαυτοῦ,
and bring him with you,

ἔστιν γάρ μοι εὔχρηστος
for he is useful to me
    εἰς διακονίαν.
    in ministry.

12 Τύχικον δὲ ἀπέστειλα
12 But I have dispatched Tychicus
    εἰς Ἔφεσον.
    to Ephesus.

13 τὸν φαιλόνην
13 The cloak
    ὃν ἀπέλιπον
    which I left
        ἐν Τρῳάδι
        in Troas
        παρὰ Κάρπῳ
        with Carpus
    upon your coming
bring [it],
    καὶ τὰ βιβλία
    and the books,
    μάλιστα τὰς μεμβράνας.
    especially the parchments.


Verse 9

Σπούδασον] second person imperative, the focus has implicitly shifted back to Timothy.

ἐλθεῖν] infinitive

πρός με] prepositional phrase, completes the infinitive. The pronoun με implicitly resolves to Paul, the writer of the letter.

ταχέως] adverb, also modifies the infinitive.

Verse 10

Δημᾶς γάρ με ἐγκατέλιπεν] Again, με resolves to the writer. Here he is informing Timothy of the recent goings-on with Demas (on Demas, see also Col 4.14; Phm 24). Demas is the subject of the verb; it also serves as a topical frame (Runge). The connective γαρ indicates that this is offering some sort of explanation or reasoning for the previous clause; here Paul is explaining why he wants Timothy to make an effort to get to him in due time.

ἀγαπήσας τὸν νῦν αἰῶνα] participial clause, modifying verb of main clause, thus providing information as to why Demas left Paul.

καὶ ἐπορεύθη] The conjunction και connects with the previous clause, thus the subject (Demas) can be assumed. Paul is giving more information about Demas, he left Paul and went somewhere else.

εἰς Θεσσαλονίκην] prepositional phrase, modifying ἐπορεύθη, giving Demas’ destination.

Κρήσκης εἰς Γαλατίαν] The implied verb here is ἐπορεύθη; this is just giving information as to Crescens’ location; it is not linking Crescens with Demas.

Τίτος εἰς Δαλματίαν] Again, just giving information as to Titus’ location. Paul’s point is that those who were with him are (largely) no longer with him; they’re off doing other things.

Verse 11

Λουκᾶς ἐστιν μόνος μετʼ ἐμοῦ] “Luke” is another topic shift; Paul moves from talking about those who have left him to talking about those who have stayed. Luke is the only one who has stayed.

Μᾶρκον ἀναλαβὼν] fronted participial clause, here shifting the topic to Mark and backgrounding the information. This is information essential to process the whole clause. The shift now goes to instructions for Timothy; to carry these out Timothy needs to know Paul’s desire for Mark.

ἄγε] second person imperative verb.

μετὰ σεαυτοῦ] prepositional phrase. The whole clause could be, following Greek word order, “Taking along Mark, bring [him] with you”.

ἔστιν γάρ μοι εὔχρηστος] Here we have the γαρ clause offering explanation of Paul’s need for Mark to come along; Mark is useful.

εἰς διακονίαν] prepositional phrase, modifying the verb ἔστιν.

Verse 12

Τύχικον δὲ ἀπέστειλα] The connective δὲ is developmental; we’re moving on from Paul’s need for Mark and into what’s going on with Tychicus (see also Ac 20.4; Eph 6.21; Col 4.7 and Titus 3.12 for more on Tychicus). Note here that “Tychicus” is a topical frame, it is needed to process the balance of the clause — about Tychicus’ being sent.

εἰς Ἔφεσον] prepositional phrase. Tychicus is coming to Ephesus (where Timothy is currently located).

Verse 13

τὸν φαιλόνην] Another fronted object that serves as a topical frame. Paul is (again) changing the subject. Now he’s interested in a particular cloak.

ὃν ἀπέλιπον] beginnings of a relative clause. This specifies which cloak Paul is concerned with. This as well is part of the topical frame.

ἐν Τρῳάδι] prepositional phrase, modifying ἀπέλιπον.

παρὰ Κάρπῳ] prepositional phrase, modifying ἀπέλιπον.

ἐρχόμενος] participial clause. All of the previous items were fronted before the main verb (which follows this participle). First the information about the cloak was needed, then information about the particular cloak was needed, now Paul can inform Timothy to, upon his coming, bring the cloak.

φέρε] second person imperative, primary verb of the whole clause. With the cloak sufficiently described, Paul can instruct Timothy to bring it upon his coming.

καὶ τὰ βιβλία] The καὶ connects this with τὸν φαιλόνην above; implicit is the same verb. Timothy is to also bring the books along with the cloak.

μάλιστα τὰς μεμβράνας] adverbial clause. “especially the parchments”. This small phrase has produced no end of discussion in commentaries and other literature, particularly having to do with μάλιστα. The basic question has to do with whether or not this is appositional (“books” and “parchments”), or whether “parchments” are a class or subset of the “books”. In 1979, T.C. Skeat published an article (“Especially the Parchments: A Note on 2 Timothy IV.13”, Journal of Theological Studies, NS, Vol. 30, 1979, pp. 173-177) where, using examples from some papyri, he posited that this could mean something like “bring the books, that is, the parchments” where μάλιστα plays a clarifying role, sorting out a smaller group from a larger, more general group. Many commentaries (starting with Knight, I believe) take this route here (and elsewhere where the use of μάλιστα is more theologically sensitive). In 2002, however, Vern Poythress published a response to Skeat’s article (“The Meaning of μάλιστα in 2 Timothy and Related Verses”, Journal of Theological Studies, Vol. 35 pt. 2 October 2002, pp. 523-532) basically taking a fairly conservative (in the literal sense) approach that Skeat’s suggestion wasn’t necessary, that his examples were explainable using the standard lexical knowledge, and that adding another sense to a lexical entry wasn’t justified in this case. I think Skeat’s suggestion has some merit, but I also think it needs to be carefully applied, particularly in situations rife with theological implications (e.g. 1Ti 4.10’s “especially the believers”).

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